Bali is one of the favourite tourism destination in Indonesia, thousands of tourist from all the world go to Bali every years. Bali is famous with its beautiful beach. One of the most favourite beach in Bali is Seminyak, it’s local name is “Dhanapura Beach”. The beach is located at Seminyak Village, Kuta Sub-district, Badung Regency, Bali. As same as another beach in Bali, this beach has soft white sand and sloping beach.
Seminyak beach is near with Kuta beach (another most famous Beach in Bali), so the atmosphere is like Kuta Beach, but not too crowd as Kuta Beach, a solution for you who prefer a quiet location.
It used to be most local people who live in near this beach were agriculture farmer, although this is a beach, but now most of them are working in tourist business.
In this beach you can swim on the beach, bask below the hot sun while enjoying the beautiful blue sea and white sand.
Bali is one of the favourite tourism destination in Indonesia, thousands of tourist from all the world go to Bali every years. Bali is famous with its beautiful beach. One of the most favourite beach in Bali is Seminyak, it’s local name is “Dhanapura Beach”. The beach is located at Seminyak Village, Kuta Sub-district, Badung Regency, Bali. As same as another beach in Bali, this beach has soft white sand and sloping beach.
Vredeburg Castle in Yogyakarta was built in Dutch Colonial Periode, Vredeburg Castle was built in 1765, the purpose of this castle building was for survival and for protecting Gubenur Dutc East Indies Governor in Governor Building, the building was called as “Gedung Agung” means “Great Building”.
Vredeburg Castle is one of Indonesia’s historical heritage, until now the building is still kept and maintained by local government. Castle’s Wall is still in solid condition. In front of the building we can see there are gutter surrounds the building. We also see a beautiful garden around the building.
Vredeburg Castle is also equipped with some cannons lead to south side means to Yogyakarta Palace. The cannons lead to Yogyakarta Palace for anticipate when Yogayarta Troops attack Castle.
Inside the castle has had restoration, there are Dioramas in one of south entrance, dioramas told story Indonesian Troop struggle for independence.
The castle is now now often become a place for art and cultural activities.
Vredeburg Castle is in Jalan Ahmad Yani or Malioboro.
How To Get There?
To go to Vredeburg Castle you need to prepare your trip to Yogyakarta /Jogja. When you arrived Yogyakarta we can arrange tripping to go Castle and any other tourist destination in Yogyakarta.
From Jakarta Airport you can book ticket to Yogyakarta here. Flight from Jakarta to Yogyakarta will need about 1 hour.
Another interested transportation from Jakarta to Yogyakarta is “by train”. About 5 hours you can arrive Yogyakarta, start trip from Jakarta. Names of Railway Station in Jakarta are “Stasiun Gambir” and “Stasiun Pasar Senen”. Names of Railway Station in Yogyakarta are “Stasiun Tugu” and “Stasiun Lempuyangan”. Book your ticket here!.
Map of Vredeburg Castle
Of course, you can find it on Google Maps. For a shorcut I give you the link below.
Lihat Museum Benteng Vredeburg di peta yang lebih besar
This place is called as “Teluk Panyu” because there are many turtles in the beach. Turtle in Indonesia’s language is Penyu.
Turtle are enjoying this beach because this beach is not too hot. Turtle is also enjoyable in this beach because there are not predator in this beach.
From Teluk Penyu you can also go to Nusakambangan Island by boat.
Another story is certainly can be found by you after you come.
Baturaden Resort is in South Side of Mount Selamet. It is a very cool place to stay at a day and cooler at a night. Baturaden has many beautiful view. Baturaden has also folk tale, the most wellknown folk tale is “Lutung Kasarung”.
In view of Baturaden you can see Purwokerto City, Nusa Kambangan Island, and also many more beach in Cilacap.
History of Medan Indonesia was founded by Guru Patimpus Sembiring Pelawi in 1590. John Anderson, the first European to visit the Deli in 1833 found a village named Medan. This village has a population of 200 people and a leader named Tuanku Island Berayan had lived there for many years to collect taxes from the canoes down the river carrying pepper. In 1886 Medan officially gained status as a city, and next year resident of East Coast Deli and Sultan moved to Medan. In 1909, Field became an important city outside Java, especially after the colonial government opened its plantations on a large scale. The first city council consisted of 12 European members, two natives, and a Chinese.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century there were two major waves of migration to Medan. The first wave of the arrival of the Chinese and Javanese as indentured plantation. But after the 1880 oil company stop bringing the Chinese, because most of them fled from the garden and often perform riot. The company then fully bring the Javanese as plantation laborers. The Chinese former plantation laborers then encouraged to develop the trade sector. The second wave is the arrival of the Minangkabau, Mandailing and Aceh. They came to the field rather than to work as farm laborers, but to trade, became a teacher and scholar.
Since 1950, the field has been several times to expand the area, from 1853 ha to 26 510 ha in 1974. Thus within 25 years after the handover of sovereignty, the city of Medan has expanded nearly eighteen-fold.
TOUR TO MEDAN CITY
City field is the fourth largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung. Field so that the city is the largest city located outside Java.
City field is well known among travelers as a place for culinary tourism. The city is a city inhabited by ethnic berbagaimacam, giving rise to diversity, including in terms of food.
Indeed the city is not a tourist destination field, but the city is visited by many tourists who transit to get to Lake Toba, and Brastagi Samosir Island, as well as overseas destinations such as Penang.
Brastagi a mountainous area in the famous resort in Medan, about 1.5 hours away from the city of Medan. In this place you can see beautiful scenery, or you can take a hike to Mount Sinabung & Sibayak
Kabanjahe tana is the capital of Karo, which is famous for its unique population and have traditionally lived. Kabanjahe also be used as a stopover point Sinabung mountain climbing.
Is about 3 hours drive from the city of Medan, the mace hill breeding orangutans. Here you can see the Sumatran orangutan is a rare animal in the world.
This is the place you should visit if you are in Medan. Lake Toba is one of the largest freshwater lake in the world, beautiful natural scenery, interesting & unique culture, good food and accommodation that will easily be found in this place.
Mirror coast Themepark
Is equipped with a waterpark resort & restaurant.
History Of Indonesia; On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in Japan, the United States that began to lower the moral spirit of the Japanese army in the world. A day later renamed BPUPKI PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) to further affirm the desire and the goal of achieving the independence of Indonesia. On August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, causing the Japanese surrendered to the United States and its allies. This moment was exploited by Indonesia for its independence.
Sukarno, Hatta, as leader of Radjiman Wedyodiningrat PPKI and as a former chairman of BPUPKI flown to Dalat, 250 km northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They reported that Japanese troops were on the verge of defeat and will give independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945, Sutan Syahrir had heard the news over the radio that Japan had surrendered to the Allies. Underground fighters prepared to proclaim the independence of Indonesia, and reject the form of independence is given as a gift Japanese. Syahrir poet Anwar told about the dropping of atomic bombs on Nagasaki and the Japanese had received an ultimatum from the Allies to surrender. Syahrir know about it through foreign radio broadcasts, which when it is forbidden. This information is then dispersed in the environment, especially the youth advocates Syahrir.
On August 12, 1945, Japan by Marshal Terauchi at Dalat, Vietnam, told Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman that the Japanese government will soon grant independence to Indonesia and the proclamation of independence can be implemented in a few days, depending on how the PPKI.  Despite this Japan wants Indonesia’s independence on August 24.
Two days later, when Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman return to the homeland of Dalat, Syahrir urged Soekarno proclaimed independence as soon as regard the meeting as a gimmick, Dalat Japan, because Japan at any time had to be surrendered to the Allies and to avoid a split in the camp nationalists, between the anti and pro-Japanese. Syahrir Hatta told about the meeting in Dalat.
Meanwhile, prepare Syahrir followers who will demonstrate and may even be ready to face the Japanese army in that they will use force. Syahrir has compiled a text of the proclamation and had been sent to all of Java to be printed and distributed.
Soekarno was not convinced that Japan had surrendered, and the proclamation of independence of Indonesia as it can cause great bloodshed, and can have fatal consequences if the fighters Indonesia is not ready. Soekarno Hatta warned that Syahrir no right to declare independence because it is the right of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Meanwhile Syahrir is the governing body considers PPKI made in Japan and the proclamation of independence by PPKI just a ‘gift’ from Japan.
Emerging and growing INDONESIA NATIONAL MOVEMENT
A. Appears causes and development of Indonesia’s National Movement
Since the Europeans came to the territory of Indonesia, the Indonesian people have realized the consequences that arise from the arrival. Since the arrival of European nations, the resistance never ceased conducted by the Indonesian people. However periawanan-resistance was always a failure. This is due to any resistance that is limited only to the area, or just want to free up areas and the population of foreign powers. With these circumstances, foreign nationals can be easier to master.
Since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century has come the seeds of nationalism in Indonesia. The emergence of nationalist movements were not independent of the influence that comes from within and from outside.
a. The influence that comes from within (internal)
1) Memories of the past glory: before European imperialism (West) entered the territory of Indonesia, there are many great and glorious kingdom, such as the Kingdom of Srivijaya empire that controlled maritime trade and shipping lanes in the Straits of Malacca. The kingdom was once a center of trade and even the center of Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Well as the Majapahit Empire under King Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada assisted by Patih become the most powerful empire in almost all parts of the archipelago. In addition, the Kingdom of Majapahit empire also known as Nusantara, since its territory includes the islands in the archipelago.
2) The suffering and misery caused by imperialism: emerging and developing world imperialism brought tremendous change in people’s lives, especially in Indonesia. Implementation of imperialism in the region for the misery and suffering of indigenous peoples, because the invaders are simply trying to make profits for the glory of its own people. Misery and suffering that is the reason or the driver of the emergence of nation-resistance periawanan Indonesia.
3) The emergence of class scholars; class of intellectuals emerged everywhere as a result of the development and improvement of education. Result of the further spread of the intellectuals in society, there arose a variety of movements that oppose the invaders. Therefore, indigenous intellectuals appeared on the political scene and became the driving leadership of the Indonesian nationalist movement.
4) Progress in the political, socio-economic and cultural; up and development of Indonesian nationalist movement is also due to advances in the political, social, economic and cultural nation of Indonesia. (1) Progress in the field of political activity or the movement of nationalist parties wanted to subvert the political domination of the imperialists and colonialists Netherlands (West). Power of the natives at that time confined by the influence of Dutch colonial policy of strict and cruel. Practices and abuse of human rights abuses are often color the political life of colonial rule, the nationalist groups appeared to voice the aspirations of the colonized society. (2) Progress in the social economy; problem was seen in the removal of foreign economic exploitation. Deletion was intended to establish a society free of misery and squalor-DTA in accordance with the ideals of social justice. Improve the lives of the nation’s awareness of Indonesia is a priority and the ideals of the nationalist struggle. (3) Progress in the field of culture; the nationalists see endangered species and indigenous cultures are in a state of dying, so it needs to be given adequate protection and reconstruction. The fighters and nationalists need to pay attention to preserving the indigenous culture and to develop or integrate both cultures. Therefore the development of indigenous cultures that are not encouraging it, then the nationalist fighters make cultural sector became one of the ideals of the struggle.
The third field is simultaneously fought for unity, because they give the characteristics of the Indonesian nationalist struggle. Nationalists understand at first develop local or regional, but then becomes collective and extends to all parts of Indonesia who colonized and eventually became aware of the Indonesian nationalists.
b. Influences coming from abroad (external)
The influence of foreign considerable role in quickening the political movements in Indonesia among other things, the Japanese victory over Russia (1905), National Movement of India, the Philippine National Movement, Movement of Nationalist China, Turkey’s Nationalist Movement, the Egyptian nationalist movement.
1) Japanese victory against Russia (1905): Modernization of Japan has brought many changes to the development of the country and the nation of Japan in the international community at that time. Japan advanced rapidly in all fields. Even the Japanese military forces must be calculated out by Western nations, including the United States at the time. To prove the military forces of Japan, Korea became the first target. Gained the victory in the war against Japan Korea, causing the Japanese to continue its expansion into Manchuria. In the Japanese attack on Manchuria that the Japanese troops are dealing with Russia, and it has very widespread in Asia. Nations in Asia began to rise against Western colonialism. This proves that in many emerging and developing regions of Asia-gerkan movement that is national as in China, the Philippines, India, Turkey, Indonesia even to mainland Africa such as Egypt and so on.
2) National Movement of India: In the face of British rule, the movement of the people of India to form a national organization known as the All India National Congress. Well-known figures in the organization such as Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit J. Nehru, B.C. Tilak, Moh. Ali Jinah, Iskandar Mirza, Liquat Ali Khan and so on. Among the leaders of India, which is more well known is Mahatma Gandhi who has the following basic struggle. (A). Ahimwi (forbidden to kill), the anti-war movement, (b). Hartnl India is a popular movement in the form of action that does not do anything even if they remain in the office or factory and so on, (c). Satyagrnhn India is a popular movement for not cooperating with the British colonial government, (d). Swacicsi the movement of people of India to put on goods made in their own country.
3) Movement of the Philippines Nationality: Filipino people’s movement is driven and fueled by Dr. Jose Rizal in order to expel the Spanish colonizers of the Philippines. Dr. Jose Rizal was arrested and on 30 September 1896, he was sentenced to death. Then the movement is continued by Emilio Aquinaldo and the Philippines had declared independence on June 12, 1898 but which had gained independence did not last long, because of the emergence of the United States which had abolished freedom. Philippines controlled by the United States and the new freedom given by the United States on July 4, 1946.
4) People’s Movement of Nationalist China; movement is led by Dr. Sun Yat Mon He held a renewal in all sectors of national life of China. Basic struggle proposed by Sun Yat Sen is the San Min Chu I, which consists of (a). Republic of China China is a nation state, (b). China’s government prepared on the basis of democracy or sovereignty belongs to the people, (c). The Chinese government prioritizes social welfare for its people.
5) The movement of Young Turks (1908); movement led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha. He demanded a renewal and moderrusasi in all sectors of society life.
6) The movement of Egyptian Nationalism: The movement is led by Arabi Pasha (1881-1882) with a goal against the Europeans, especially British rule over the land of Egypt.
With the growing national movement in various regions in Asia and in Africa had a great impact on the people of Indonesia in the struggle against Dutch colonial rule. Movements that emerged in Indonesia was marked by the emergence of modern organizations founded by the educated. Ultimate goal of any organization is the independent movement of the people of Indonesia from Dutch colonial rule or liberate the nation of Indonesia. The emergence of the movement of the people of Indonesia is marked by the establishment of the organization Budi Utomo dated May 20, 1908. Even this year be a milestone for the rise of Indonesia against Dutch colonial rule.
2. The ideology of the Nationalist Movement Growing in Indonesia
Beginning of the 20th century in the history of Indonesia is known as the National Revival period. The growth of consciousness that animates the process according to the form of its manifestation has been through reasonable measures, ranging from the birth of liberal ideas and the emancipation of underdeveloped status paced, well rooted in tradition and created by the colonial situation. Then immediately following the progress of ideas and their ideals to improve the standard of life of the nation of Indonesia. The ideas that underlie the movement would appear that organizations grow and develop at that time. In fact each has the organizational and ideological foundation that will strengthen the position and struggle.
Ideologies that emerged and developed in the national movement of Indonesia, among others, Ideology Liberalism, Nationalism, Communism, Democracy, Islamism and Pan others.
Ideology of Liberalism. The ideology of liberalism was introduced in Indonesia by the Dutch people who support the struggle of the Indonesian nation. Dutch people are going to see a lot of distortions such as by acting so far outside the boundaries of humanity. The actions of the Dutch colonial government which they condemn as acts of extortion, cruelty or torture, and so forth.
Problems such as these they delivered on time organized by the parliamentary session in the Netherlands. They strongly condemned all acts committed by the Dutch with their accomplices in the region of Indonesia. They proposed that the Dutch royal government ordered the implementation of the ideology of liberalism in Indonesia. The ideology of liberalism can be expected to bring the people of Indonesia to change for the better.
The ideology of liberalism is a priority to understand that individual freedom or the freedom of people’s lives. Because the nature of freedom that people can develop and work to improve the welfare of her life. The ideology of liberalism was developed by political organizations in Indonesia such as Indische Partij.
Ideology of nationalism. Nationalism is the ideology of the first time introduced by the political organizations that emerged in the region of Indonesia. Nationalism became the basis of the struggle ideology of the Indonesian National Party (PNI), chaired by Ir. Sukarno. Nationalism as an ideology shows a nation that has common culture, language, and region. In addition, common ideals and goals. Thus the group can feel a deep loyalty to the nation.
PNI as a nationalist party whose ideology has a goal to fight for the life of a free nation Indonesia. Even his political ideals which Indonesia achieved independence and sovereign, and expelled the Dutch colonialism in Indonesia.
Communist ideology. The ideology of communism was introduced first by Sneevliet, a railway employee is a Dutch national. The ideology of communism is embodied in the establishment of a named organization Democratis The Social Indische Vereeniging (ISDV). ISDV organization is very difficult to get support from the people because people are less trusting of the Dutch.
Difficulty obtaining popular support, then a relationship with Sneevliet Semaun, a branch chief in Semarang SI Islam. Relations between Semaun Sneevliet with the Communist Party led to the formation of Indonesia (PKI) in 1920.
PKI is a very radical movement, followed by an uprising in 1926 and 1927. However, due to the failure of the revolt, the CPI used as teriarang party in Indonesia during Dutch colonial rule.
Democratic ideology. The ideology of democracy first appeared in Greece with a system of direct democracy. This means that the people involved and determine the course of a government. However, democracy is unlikely to be implemented in Indonesia during the national movement. This is because the Indonesian nation was still under Dutch colonial rule. The Netherlands is not possible to implement a democratic system in Indonesia, because it would harm the Dutch colonial government power.
The new democratic system can be implemented in the region of Indonesia after Indonesia’s independence. Democratic system is implemented in Indonesia known as Pancasila democracy.
The ideology of Pan-Islamism. The ideology of Pan-Islamism is an understanding that aims to unite Muslims worldwide. This ideology appears closely related to the condition of the 19th century which is the decline of the Islamic world. Meanwhile, the Western world is in progress and make the conquest of the Islamic countries, including Indonesia are predominantly Muslim.
Pan-Islamism is a radical and progressive movements. It is highly recognized by the people or the countries of Western imperialism, including the Dutch who colonized Indonesia. Spirit embodied in the movement of Pan-Islamism has been raised with a strong sense of nationalism based on religious ties. This ideology has encouraged the emergence of organizations based on religion in the region of Indonesia such as Islam SI (SI), Muhammadiyah, and others.
B. STRATEGY ORGANIZATION MOVEMENT INDONESIA NATIONALITY
At the time of the Indonesian nationalist movement there are two things worth noting as a fundamental moment in history. First, the emergence of the Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands. Association of Indonesia is the most vocal organizations in Indonesia’s independence voiced by implementing national action and believe in the power of its own. Association of Indonesia is a movement that is able to generate goals and ideals against imperialism and colonialism. With all the progressive political action movement of the Association of Indonesia should be a “political manifesto” first of all a national movement that had existed since 1908 until the 1920’s. Poliriknya Manifesto is an independent Indonesia. Second, the emergence of the Youth Pledge. That event is the crystallization of all the aspirations and ideals of the people of Indonesia at that time to unite to free themselves from the invaders. Youth Pledge foundation trilogy that is contained in a homeland of Indonesia, a nation of Indonesia and the Indonesian language.
In such circumstances, then in 1908 began to stand up and develop modern organizations in Indonesia that are both political, economic, and social and cultural rights.
A. Budi Utomo (BU)
In the 20th century appears as a driver of the few doctors in Asia such as Dr. Sun Yat Sen in China, Dr. Jose Rizal in the Philippines, as well as in Indonesia show doctors like Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo, Dr. Sutomo, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Gunawan Mangunkusumo. The doctors were faced with the rise because of the suffering of the people both in terms of economic, physical, and humanity.
Doctors Wahidin Sudirohusodo diligently to spread the ideals of Java can be formed an association which aims to promote and finance the education of children who can not attend school but has intelligence. Her goal was received from a medical student in Jakarta as Java Sutomo, Gunawan Mangunkusumo, Cipto Mangunkusumo and so forth. Finally, on May 20, 1908 Sutomo and his friends founded a society that is berinama Budi Utomo in Jakarta. The first congress was held in October 1908 and managed to pick Duke Tirtokusumo (a regent) as chairman and Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo as vice chairman.
To encourage the spirit of its members, Budi Utomo mencanang the guidelines into the bike and the boy’s parents became his driver, so the ship stranded at sea corals and safely reached the harbor. In addition, Congress produced a decision about the destination of the movement, which is to ensure and maintain a respectable life as a nation. This society is engaged in social, educational, teaching, and culture.
Budi Utomo association membership was originally limited to the areas of Java and Madura, Bali and then added, because they have the same culture. If the views of its membership, these associations are regional (local). However, the society also has to be said to be national. This was evident when the establishment of associations of political parties such as the National Political consensus Pemimpunan Indonesia (PPPKI), Budi Utomo participate in it. Budi Utomo national movement becomes increasingly apparent that the amendment of the name Budi Budi Utomo became President (letter a) and its purpose is clearly visible since 1928 participated implement the ideals of the unity of Indonesia.
Budi Utomo conduct further integration organization derigan seasas and congenial. Above considerations that Budi Utomo then melting into one with PBI (United Nations Indonesia) to Parindra Party (Indonesia Raya).
2. Association of Indonesia (PI)
Student youth movement in foreign countries (the Netherlands) have a major impact on politics and the youth movement in the homeland of Indonesia. In 1908, the youth of Indonesia in the Netherlands set up associations with the name of the Indische Vereeniging. These are social gatherings with the initial goal is for the welfare of its members residing in the Netherlands. Suwardi Suryaningrat arrival and his friends to the Netherlands took a major influence on the development of these associations. Moreover with the World War I and the echo of the motto of Woodrow Wilson (President of the United States) that states that have recognized the existence of the right of set / determinations (self determination), the motto would give encouragement to members to keep fighting the Indische Vereeniging.
In 1922, Indische Vereeniging Vereeniging renamed to Indonesische (Association of Indonesia). Two years later in 1924, the Association of Indonesia clearly states its purpose to fight for the independence of Indonesia. The way to achieve independence was done by implementing national action and believe in the power of its own.
This society has a media magazine caters to the aspirations of all its members. Magazines organization called the Indian Association of Indonesia’s son and later became an independent Indonesia. Its members have the attitude and the nature of its own, that there is a radical revolutionary and there is moderate. Radical group after completing his studies and returned to Indonesia in 1927 and joined the fighters Indonesia Indonesia to set up the National Party (PNI).
Propaganda Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands carried out actively. The organization is in contact with international agencies that benefit the Indonesian struggle. The relationship is done by Association I ‘Etude des Civilisation Orientates (founded in Paris in 1925). One of the activities of the Association of Indonesia in the year 1926-1927 is attending an international congress such as:
o International Congress of Democrats in Bierville (1926) and the Association of Indonesia represented by Drs. Moh. Hatta.
o Congress of the League Against Imperialism and Oppression in Brussels (1927) and the Association of Indonesia represented by Drs. Moh. Hatta.
In Congress, the Association of Indonesia managed to attract the sympathy of the league with a resolution supporting the Indonesian independence movement, and demanded the removal intemiran happened to the people of Indonesia. But the movement of the Indonesian Association of nimble and agile it would draw suspicion from the Dutch colonial government. Activities of the Association of Indonesia associated with the occurrence of rebellion PartaiKomunis Indonesia (PKI) in 1926-1927. As a result, its leaders were arrested as Drs. Mohammad Hatta, Sastroamidjojo Ali, Abdul Madjid Djojodiningrat, Datuk Nasir Pamuntjak. When the Association of Indonesia perniinpin is brought to trial, Drs. Mohammad Hatta made a brilliant speech in defense of the title of an independent Indonesia. The defense in legal terms by Mr. Dyus (a member of the Labour Party). Because it is not proven guilty, then in 1928 they were released.
The arrest of the defendants caused great sympathy in Indonesia. PNI meeting to provide support to the Indonesian students in Holland. On the advice of PNI, the Association of Indonesia PPPKI place as an outpost in the fight for Indonesia’s independence.
3. SI Islam
In 1911 the city of Solo appeared the trade association of Islam with a Muslim merchant named Haji SI Samanhudi as a leader. Actually, this association has been in existence since 1909, when under the leadership of RM. Tirtoadisuryo a member of the Muslim traders. Since the association was led by Haji Samanhudi it becomes very significant and wide influence among Muslim traders.
But then, an intellectual of Surabaya named Haji Omar Said (HOS) Cokroaminoto the promoters change the association as well as Trade SI SI Islam became Islam (SI). That change was a major effect on the membership system. Members are no longer the only Muslim traders, but already encompass all Muslims from various walks of life. The name change occurred in 1912 that contain the content and spirit as well as focusing on the religion of Islam with all its manifestations.
Meanwhile, Islam SI involvement in the Volksraad (People’s Council) protested by members, such as Semaun. However, Islam SI wanted to show his loyalty to the government, even though the government knew that the organization is very big influence on society. To that end, the Dutch government on an ongoing basis and follow the movements of Islam SI near. Islam SI representatives who sit in that body was Abdul Muis (author) and HOS Cokroaminoto (organizer and orator).
Apparently the influence of Islam in society SI movement is very strong. His influence spread to all parts of Indonesia, giving rise to the rebellion, as shown below.
* Revolt in Toli-Toli (South Sulawesi); casualties of this rebellion, which is a Dutch civil servants and some employees of Indonesia. The rebellion was connected with the arrival of Abdul Muis to Sulawesi, who happened to be the purposes of the party, so he was accused of involvement in the uprising.
* Rebellion Cimareme (West Java), this rebellion is due to the protests of the peasants who refused to give rice to the government with a predetermined price. In the rebellion, SI Islam also accused of involvement.
In 1920, established the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) in Indonesia with Semaun as chairman. Semaun position is very dangerous for the development of Islam SI, because at that time also served as Chairman Semaun SI Semarang branch of Islam. Therefore, in 1921, SI Islam issued regulations concerning the discipline of the organization and declared Islam forbids SI members to become members of other organizations. The ban was protested by Semaun. Thus, SI Islam can not maintain the integrity of the organization and split into SI Islam, led by Semaun Red and White Sarekat Cokroaminoto led by HOS. However, SI Islam until the moment it’s not the name of the party.
In 1929, SI Islam claims to be the party with the name of Islam Indonesia Sarekat Party (PSII), year also become very important for SI Islam, because in addition to losing many of its members, SI Islam also took radical steps, that is out of the Volksraad. It was an act of noncooperation and tactics implemented by SI Islam to the Dutch colonial government.
Then in 1930, SI Islam in decline due to the various divisions within the organization. SI Islam is divided into three parties namely Kartosuwiryo PSII, PSII Abikusno, Indonesia and the Islamic Party of SI. The party ceased its activities after the Japanese occupation of Indonesia.
4. Indische Partij
Douwes Dekker, Cipto Mangunkusumo, and Suwardi Suryaningrat are the three founders of the Indische Partij (1912). It is a party slogan for the Indian Ocean, which means that Indonesia is only for the people who settled and lived in Indonesia without exception and regardless of any type of people. Indonesia is the Indian name for that time.
The party’s goal is to prepare an independent life of the Indonesian nation. Open to all community members residing in all parts of Indonesia. But in reality, which first became a member of this party is an Indo-European people. Therefore, these parties can not develop into a mass party. This was caused by the colonial stelsel still a barrier in the process of interaction or association with the foreigners in Indonesia.
Indische Partij has demonstrated its political line is clear and unequivocal, and wanted a unified multiracial population. The purpose of this party is really revolutionary, because he wanted to break the reality of racial politics carried out by the Dutch colonial government in Indonesia. Action was evident when in 1913 the Dutch government will hold a memorial service free Holland 100 years of colonial France (Napoleon Bonaparte), by way of levy funds from the people of Indonesia. The action figures were burning anger of Indonesia such as Suwardi Suryaningrat, Cipto Mangunkusumo, Douwes Dekker. They want to thwart the intention of the Netherlands with a brochure entitled A / s ik een Nederlander was (If I were a Dutchman). Fill in the brochure include the following.
“….. If I were a Dutchman, I protest the memorial to be held. I will warn my friends that are actually quite dangerous invaders at that time held a memorial celebration of independence. I would warn all of the Dutch, not to mention civilization Indonesia The new up and be brave. Indeed, I would protest bloody murder ….. ”
An increasingly harsh criticism against the Dutch colonial government, led to three characters Indische Partij arrested. In 1913 they were exiled to Holland. But in 1914, Cipto Mangunkusumo returned to Indonesia because of illness, while Suwardi Suryaningrat Douwes Dekker and newly restored to Indonesia in 1919.
Douwes Dekker still go into politics and Suwardi Suryaningrat foray into the world of education and further established a college student named Park. Suwardi Suryaningrat later known as Ki Hajar Dewantara. Although Indische Partij can not resist the will of the Netherlands, but the struggle they still have an enormous significance in the Indonesian nationalist movement to achieve independence.
Muhammadiyah was established in November 18, 1912 in Yogyakarta was founded by KH Ahmad Dahlan (1868-1923) was a great scholar of Yogyakarta. With the purpose of: (1) develop in accordance with instructions of Islam and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad SWA, (2) assist and improve people’s lives, (3) promote education in Indonesia.
Muhammadiyah charitable work done in an effort to uphold and enforce the religion of Islam, including: (1) establish, maintain, and helping establish schools based on the religion of Islam to enhance the dignity of the Indonesian nation, (2) Establish and maintain places of worship; ( 3) establish and maintain hospitals to maintain public health, (4) establish and maintain an orphanage for the orphans, (5) make up the body a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, (6) form an autonomous organization to accommodate people according to age, sex to enhance the dignity of a people fighting Islam.
Muhammadiyah organization was called the followers of the Prophet Muhammad meant by trying to live the teachings of Islam according to his teachings.
6. Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI)
At the 20th century came a few employees of the Dutch communist-leaning in Indonesia. One of them is Sneevliet. In addition, as an employee, Sneevliet also actively spreading communism. Sneevliet realize that his efforts to gain popular support Indonesia through the establishment of the organization will not succeed. That is why he was in a relationship with Semaun which at that time served as Chairman of the Semarang branch of Islam SI.
In 1914 Sneevliet founded the Marxist-style organization with the name Social Democratic Indische Vereeniging (ISDV), based in Semarang. Together with Semaun, Sneevliet succeeded in developing a sensible ISDV Marxist and influence the members of the SI Islam. This noodle is also the cause of Islam’s split into two SI, SI Islam is the leader HOS Cokroaminoto White and Red with leaders of Islamic SI Semaun.
In 1920 the Red Sarekat ISDV joined and formed the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). The party headed by his deputy Semaun and Darsono. However, several prominent Dutch people who did not approve the creation of the PKI finally broke away and then formed the Social Democratic Party Indies (ISDP) with F. Bahler as chairman.
PKI relationship with the Dutch colonial government increasingly tenuous even worse. This is due to the onset of strikes that led to the problem of conflict between the Dutch colonial government with the Communist Party.
Then in 1926 PKI rebellion in West Java (about Bantam) and in 1927 in West Sumatra. With the failure of PKI rebellion, then in 1927 the Dutch colonial government declared illegal Communist Party as the party standing in the region of Indonesia.
After the rebellion failed, Musso, Alimin and other PKI leaders fled abroad. PKI leaders who do not agree with rebellion fled to Thailand and then founded a new party called the Party of Indonesia (PARI), based in Bangkok (1927).
7. Indonesian National Party (PNI)
When Budi Utomo, SI Islam, and PKI develops, there is also a class of intellectuals who took part in the Indonesian nationalist movement. They moved through the club with the aim of which is national. The club is Aglemen Study Club in Bandung and Surabaya Study Club Indies as well as other clubs are found in all cities in Indonesia.
The clubs grew into political parties that are national. Aglemen Study Club in Bandung Indonesia grew into the National Party (PNI) and the Indies Study Club in Surabaya Indonesia grew Nation Party (FBI) and later became the Party of Indonesia Raya (Parindra).
In 1927, PNI established by figures such as Ir. Sukarno, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Ir. Anwari, Sartono SH, SH Budiarto, and Dr. Samsi. PNI as a national party that has developed very rapidly, even in a very short time has managed to attract the attention and sympathy of the masses. The revolutionary nationalist groups can be accommodated at this party.
In 1927, initiated the founding PPPKI PNI (Indonesian National Political Association agreement). The agency is a coordinating body of various streams to raise the unity of action against imperialism or colonialism.
The emergence of a provocative story that stated that PNI will carry out the rebellion, resulting in the Dutch government did arrest the leaders of the PNI. PNI leaders who were arrested were Ir. Sukarno, Billy Mangkupraja, Maskun, and Suriadinata. Then the four men were faced with a court in Bandung in 1930. In the trial that, Ir. Soekarno asked defense speech, entitled Indonesia Sues. Defenders of the fighters of Indonesia is Sartono SH, Sastromuljono SH, and SH Prawiradiputra Idik. As for as the trial judge was Mr. Dr. R. Siegembeek Hoekelen van. District court sentenced him to Ir dam. Soekarno with 4 years in prison, Maskun 2 years in prison, Billy Mangkupraja 1 year 8 months, 1 year and 3 months Suriadinata.
PNI is the basic struggle for socio-nationalist and democratic socio-shortened to Marhaenism. Attitude toward the Dutch colonial government was nonkooperatif. It’s the same principle with the principle of the struggle of the Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands. This is due to mem-PNI have a very close relationship with the Association of Indonesia, so the huge influence of the PNI.
8. Party of Indonesia (Partindo)
Because PNI leaders were arrested, the party leadership held by Sartono SH. However, Sartono concerned about the continuation and development of the PNI. Sartono concerned PNI will end up like PKI is considered a party banned by the Dutch colonial government. Sartono concern that affects the members. For safety, PNI eventually disbanded and a new party stands the Party of Indonesia (Partindo) 1931. However, those who do not approve of the dissolution of the PNI was eventually form another party or by the name of the New PNI PNI Education.
After Ir. Soekarno was released from prison in 1931, he chose Partindo as a means of struggle. The presence of Ir. Sukarno in Partindo inspiring struggle Partindo members, as well as the Dutch colonial government worried. Ir. Sukarno was arrested again and exiled to Ende on Flores Island. In 1937 moved to Bengkulu and in 1943 released by the Japanese.
9. National Education Indonesia (PNI Education)
Those who do not agree with the dissolution of the PNI, form a political party with the name of National Education Indonesia (PNI Education), led by Drs. Mohammad Hatta and Sutan Sjahrir. The party is based in London. Education is the principle struggle PNI sticking to the principle nonkooperatif. Models struggle with what has been done by the Association of Indonesia, Indonesian National Party, and Party of Indonesia. The party had more influence in rural areas.
Apparently this party movement is considered very dangerous position of the Dutch government. Therefore, its leaders were arrested and exiled to Digul (1934). In 1936 they moved to Holland, in 1942 moved to Sukabumi until the arrival of the Japanese.
10. Party of Indonesia Raya (Parindra)
Party embryo Indonesia Raya (Parindra) is Indische Study Club in Surabaya, led by Dr. Sutomo. In 1931, the per-set is then converted to the Nation Party of Indonesia (FBI). The purpose is to enhance the degree of struggle of Indonesia to do the real thing and can be felt by many people, such as promoting education, establishing cooperative people, set up banks for the people and also set up a union fishermen.
PB1 repeatedly approached by Budi Utomo. In attempts to bring about that approach, which plays an important role is Dr. Sutomo (FBI chairman and cofounder of Budi Utomo). Peng-combined the two organizations took place in 1935 and subsequently established Fartai Indonesia Raya (Parindra). The purpose of it is to achieve Parindra Indonesia Raya, with its chairman Dr. Sutomo and serve as the city of Surabaya city center of all activities.
Further development, many organizations are joining the Parindra, such as Sumatra SI, SI Ambon, The Betawi, Timore Verbond and so on. Cooperative tactics of struggle is incidental (in collaboration with the Dutch colonial government). It turned out to benefit the nation and the tactics of the Indonesian nationalist movement. A character who sits in Parindra Volksraad (People’s Council) is Muhammad Husni Thamrin. He was known as an expert because of frequent debate cast criticisms of the Dutch colonial government in the People’s Council session.
Surabaya Indonesia is the capital city of East Java Province, Indonesia. Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta. Metropolis with a population that reached 3 million, Surabaya is the center of business, commerce, industry, and education in eastern Indonesia. Surabaya is known as City of Heroes because of its history which is taken into account in the struggle for Indonesian independence from the colonizers.
Although Java is a majority interest (83.68%), but Surabaya is also home to various ethnic groups in Indonesia, including the Madurese (7.5%), Chinese (7.25%), Arabic (2.04%), and the rest are other ethnic groups or foreigners.
Said Surabaya supposedly comes from the mythical story of the battle between sura (shark) and baya (crocodile).
Surabaya was once the kingdom of Majapahit gate, at the mouth of the Kali Mas. Even the day so specified as the city of Surabaya on May 31, 1293. The day was actually a day of victory forces Raden Wijaya Majapahit led to the forces of Kublai Khan’s Mongol empire messengers. Mongol troops coming from the sea is described as Boyo (crocodile / danger) and Raden Wijaya forces coming from the land described as SURO fish (shark / bold), so it literally means the courage to face the dangers that threaten. So the day of victory is celebrated as the anniversary of Surabaya.
In the 15th century, Islam began to spread rapidly in the Surabaya area. One member of the wali sanga, Sunan Ampel, establishing mosques and Islamic schools in the area Ampel. 1530, Surabaya became part of the Sultanate of Demak.
Following the collapse of Demak, Surabaya became the target of conquest of the Sultanate of Mataram: Panembahan Senopati invaded in 1598, was heavily damaged by Seda ing Panembahan Krapyak in 1610, attacked by Sultan Agung in 1614. Blocking the flow of the Brantas River by Sultan Agung Surabaya finally forced to surrender. In 1675, Trunojoyo of Madura took Surabaya, but eventually sacked in 1677 VOC.
The agreement between Pakubuwono VOC II and on 11 November 1743, handed over his command to the VOC Surabaya.
At the time of the Dutch East Indies, Surabaya residency status as the capital of Surabaya, whose territory also includes what is now the district of Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Jombang. In 1905, Surabaya got the status of municipalities (Gemeente). In 1926, designated as the provincial capital of Surabaya in East Java. Surabaya has since developed into a modern city’s second largest after the Netherlands East Indies Batavia.
Before 1900, the center of Surabaya only revolve around Red Bridge alone. Until the 1920s, the growth of new settlements such as the Darmo, Gubeng, Sawahan, and Ketabang. In 1917 built a modern port facilities in Surabaya.
Dated February 3, 1942, the Japanese dropped a bomb in Surabaya. In March 1942, Japan won Surabaya. Surabaya then subjected to Allied air raid on May 17, 1944.
After World War II ended, on October 25, 1945, 6000, British troops from India’s 49 Brigade, 23 Division led by Brigadier-General Walter Sothern Mallaby Aulbertin landed in Surabaya with main orders to disarm the Japanese, Indonesian soldiers and militia. They are also in charge of former prisoners of war and repatriate the Japanese troops. Japanese troops surrender all their weapons, but the militia and Indonesia over 20000 troops refused.
October 26, 1945, agreement was reached between Mr. Suryo, Governor of East Java with Brigadier Mallaby that Indonesian troops and militia do not have to surrender their weapons. Unfortunately, misunderstandings between the British forces in Surabaya with the British army headquarters in Jakarta led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison.
October 27, 1945, at 11:00 noon, British Air Force Dakota aircraft dropped leaflets from Jakarta to Surabaya in Indonesia and the soldiers ordered all militias to surrender weapons. The Indonesian army and militia leaders angry when reading this leaflet and think of Brigadier Mallaby did not keep the agreement dated October 26, 1945.
October 28, 1945, Indonesian troops and militia attacking British troops in Surabaya. To avoid defeat in Surabaya, Brigadier Mallaby requested that President Soekarno and the commander of British forces 23 Division, Major General Douglas Hawthorn Cyril to go to Surabaya and seeking peace.
October 29, 1945, President Soekarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and Information Minister Maj. Gen. Amir Syarifuddin Harahap with Hawthorn went to Surabaya to negotiate.
By day, October 30, 1945, reached agreement that was signed by President Soekarno and 23 Division Commander Major General Hawthorn. Contents of the agreement is held stop shooting and British troops will pull out of Surabaya as soon as possible. Major General Hawthorn and the three leaders left Surabaya Indonesia and back to Jakarta.
On the afternoon of October 30, 1945, Brigadier General Mallaby around to the various headings of British forces in Surabaya to inform about the agreement. When approaching the post of British forces in Internatio building, near the red bridge, the car was surrounded by a militia Brigadier General Mallaby who previously had surrounded the building Internatio.
Thinking that would be attacked by militia commanders, troops led by British company D Major K. Venu Gopal opened fire on his militia to disband. The militia thought they were being attacked / shot at British troops from the Internatio building and returned fire. A British officer, Captain R.C. Smith threw a grenade in the direction Indonesian militias, but missed and instead falls right in the car Brigadier Mallaby.
The grenade exploded and burned cars. As a result, Brigadier Mallaby and his driver were killed. The initial report given to British troops in Surabaya headquarters of British forces in Jakarta said Brigadier General Mallaby was shot dead by Indonesian militia.
Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was furious to hear the death of Brigadier Mallaby and deploy 24 000 more troops for control of Surabaya. Past 9 November 1945, the British ultimatum to deploy all the weapons Indonesian soldiers and militia immediately handed over to the British army, but the ultimatum was ignored. 10 November 1945, the British began to bomb Surabaya and a fierce battle took place continuously for 10 days. Two planes were shot down British troops RI and one of the passengers Brigadier General Robert Guy Loder-Symonds mortally wounded and died the next day. 20 November 1945, Britain seized Surabaya with untold thousands of soldiers were killed. Indonesia over 20000 soldiers, militia and Surabaya residents were killed. The entire city of Surabaya was devastated.
This battle is one of the bloodiest battles experienced by British forces in the decade of the 1940s. The seriousness of this battle shows Indonesia to maintain independence and repel invaders. Because the heat of battle and the amount of casualties, after this battle, the number of British troops in Indonesia began to be gradually reduced and replaced by Dutch troops. Battle of 10 November 1945 up to today is remembered and celebrated as Heroes’ Day.
GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY SURABAYA
Surabaya is located on the northern coast of East Java province. Territory adjacent to the Madura Strait in the North and East, South Sidoarjo, Gresik regency in the West as well. Surabaya is located in the lowlands, the height between 3-6 m above sea level except in the southern part there are two sloping hill that is in the tongue and Gayungan height between 25-50 m above sea level and in the west a little bumpy. There Surabaya Kali Mas estuary, which is one of the two fractions Brantas.luas the city of Surabaya River is 374.36 km2.
The Javanese are the majority ethnic group in Surabaya. Compared with the Java community at large, The Javanese in Surabaya has a temper that a little louder and egalitarian. One reason is Surabaya away from the palace which is seen as a center of Javanese culture.
Surabaya is also home to various ethnic groups in Indonesia, including Madurese, Chinese, and Arabic.
As an educational center, Surabaya is also home to students from different regions from all over Indonesia, even among their own community also formed container. As a regional commercial center, many foreigners (expats) living in Surabaya, especially in West Surabaya.
Islam is the religion of the majority of Surabaya. Surabaya is one of the center spread of the earliest religion of Islam in Java. Ampel mosque was founded in the 15th century by Sunan Ampel, one of the pioneers Walisongo.
Embraced other religions are Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. In Surabaya also found adherents of Shia Islam in significant numbers. Although Islam is the majority of people in Surabaya on Religious harmony of mutual respect, respect each other and help each other to a large enough, the intention of running the Charity communities Surabaya in worship. Not only that many social foundations berazaskan Religion is also a lot, they work together in social activities of Bhakti. There is even a single container for Religious Harmony in Surabaya are often Exist in addressing the problem of human social order is not easily provoked by the parties are not responsible for what will destroy the unity of the Indonesian people in general and especially the people of East Java. Surabaya is home of several large churches Indonesia. And numerous sects or flow emerging church in the city of Surabaya.
Surabaya has typical Javanese dialect known as Boso Suroboyoan. This dialect is spoken in Surabaya and its surrounding area, and has influence in the eastern province of East Java. This dialect is known egalitarian, outspoken, and does not recognize various levels of language as a standard Java language in general. Surabaya community known to be quite fanatic and proud of its language. But by the advanced civilization and the many immigrants who come to Surabaya had mixed Suroboyo language, Java and Madura ngoko, Suroboyo native languages ??are extinct. Njegog Example: Turn, Ndherok: Stop, Gog: Paklek / Om, Maklik: Bulek / aunt.
As a metropolitan city, Surabaya became the center of economic activities in East Java and the surrounding area. Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Many large companies are headquartered in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing’s Group, Unilever, and PT PAL. Industrial areas including Surabaya in Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut (SEER) and Margomulyo.
Today there are dozens of big malls and dozens of large supermarkets. Famous modern shopping centers are: Tunjungan Plaza, Pakuwon Trade Center and the Supermall Pakuwon Beautiful (one building), Galaxy Mall, Golden City Mall, Junction lathe (BG Junction), Royal Plaza, City of Tomorrow (Cito), Surabaya Town Square (Sutos ), Hi Tech Mall, Maspion Square, MEX Building, Market Mall Atum, ITC Surabaya Plaza Marina (formerly Sinar Fontana), and Plasa Surabaya Surabaya society better known as the Delta Plaza and the most recent date is the Empire Palace, which it is also the first wedding mall in Indonesia. While traditional shopping centers including the famous Pasar Turi, Atomic Market, and Darmo Trade Center (DTC), which formerly was Wonokromo Market.
Surabaya is known to have unique art:
* Ludruk, is a performing arts drama that tells the lives of everyday people.
* Dance Remo, is a welcome dance which is generally offered to special guests
* Chanting, is a sung poem, and contains elements of humor
In addition to the above typical arts, culture arek call (call typical Surabaya) is translated as Cak for men and for women Ning. In an effort to preserve the culture, every election is held once a year Cak & Ning Surabaya. Cak & Ning Surabaya and the finalists chosen a tourism ambassador and youth icon of Surabaya.
The festival is held once every year Durasim Cak (FCD), which is a festival of art to preserve the culture of Surabaya and East Java in general. Cak Durasim Festival is usually held at the House of Cak Durasim, Surabaya. There was also the Surabaya Art Festival (FSS), which raised all kinds of art forms such as theater, dance, music, literature seminars, exhibitions of paintings. the performers are usually apart of the art in surabaya surabaya also come from outside. also enlivened the screening step on the screen, show T-shirts and so forth. held annually in June held at the Youth Center
Surabaya is the transportation hub of land transportation in the eastern part of Java Island, the confluence of a number of highway that connects Surabaya with other cities. Freeway segment including Surabaya-Gresik, Surabaya-Waru-Gempol, and Waru-Juanda Airport. When this has been examined highway construction plans in the Central Cross-town and East Cross to reduce congestion. Highway will be built is the Surabaya-Mojokerto-Kertosono.
To connect Surabaya with Madura island, there is a Suramadu Bridge the longest bridge in Indonesia. Relationship intercity bus terminal is served by two buses, namely Bus Terminal Purabaya (Bungurasih) and Pond Bus Terminal (Osowilangun).
Bus Terminal Purabaya or more popularly known as Terminal Bungurasih, is the busiest bus terminal in Indonesia (with passenger numbers up to 120,000 per day), and the largest bus terminal in Southeast Asia. The terminal is located outside the borders of the District Waru Surabaya, Sidoarjo. This terminal serves routes at close range, medium-, and far (AKAP). Pond Bus Terminal (Osowilangun) serves close range and medium-sized freight traffic north to Semarang.
Surabaya city is connected with a number of cities in Java via the railway. Surabaya has four major railway stations: Wonokromo, Gubeng, Surabaya City, Surabaya Pasar Turi. Railway line including the Surabaya-Malang majoring-Blitar (Training), Surabaya-Kertosono-Blitar (Doho), Surabaya-Bojonegoro-Cepu (KRD), Surabaya Gubeng-Jember-Banyuwangi (East Pearl}, Jember, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Navan (Logawa}, Banyuwangi-Yogyakarta (Sritanjung), Surabaya Gubeng-Kiaracondong (Pasundan), Surabaya-Jakarta-Lempuyangan (GBMS), Surabaya, Semarang Poncol-JAKK (Kertajaya} and rail-rail diesel SAKK Porong (commuting). Name the name of a railway train in economy class (subject Alit)
Transportation in the city is served by taxis, city buses (AC / Non AC), public transportation (better known as Bemo), angguna (such as a taxi but no air conditioning, and has a distinctive shape), and tricycles (although now more restricted in use). Surabaya has a number of terminals in the city, among others Joyoboyo, Bratang, and Red Bridge. For regional-scale transport, there is a connecting train commuting Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Porong, Surabaya-Gresik, Lamongan, and now also developed major commuter train-Surabaya-Mojokerto Jombang.
An idol with the concept of Green Island Tourism
SUMATRA INDONESIA. Green tourism will be applied in the development of the island of idols. The more limited concept of tourism is a private, exclusive travel is costly.
“This exclusive week later it is expensive, so bring in more revenue than the usual tourist. Small, exclusive and expensive
The concept of fit, given the vast island that does not amount to much. But the natural beauty of the exotic island of Idolatry and natural course will be the main attraction of data
The idol of the island is an island in Jambi, Indonesia. This island is the outer islands of Indonesia in the Straits of Malacca, the island is rich in forest root bahar this store different types of coral reefs (Intertidal Coral Reef and Middle Reef) within a radius of 200 M from the beach which is not less than 22 species of coral and fish species can be seen of 11 species, when you dive there. Width is 2.5 km ². Idol has a mountainous topography with lush forests and white beaches. At the beginning and end of the year, the coast Idols Island a haven for nesting sea turtles. The island is rich in forest root bahar this store different types of coral reefs (Intertidal Coral Reef and Middle Reef) within a radius of 200 M from the beach which is not less than 22 species of coral and fish species can be seen from 11 species, when you dive there.
The idol of the island’s name is taken from the name of the first king of Jambi Datuk Paduko idol whose tomb contained on the island.
The idol of the island is quite unique in view of his name alone suggests its own. 2.5 Hectare island wide ranges. The condition is very natural and yet the island has a population. Currently the island guarded by the Indonesian Army Navy
Already, there are facilities such as resort, fishing, marine and vehicle for games Hotels for the tourists who visit there
In addition to Berhala Island in North Sumatra, there are again four islands of the same name. One in Indonesia, while the other three in Malaysia. The second island in Indonesia is located in the Strait of Idols, near the Riau Islands. Around him, there are three small islands with an area of ??approximately 0.25 to 0.5 hectares. The island is contested province of Jambi and Riau.
Three other islands belong to Malaysia respectively located near Sandakan, north of Borneo, near Johor, and in Silver (named Rock Idols).
SUMATRA INDONESIA. Tourist attractions to visit in SUMATERA
a. Sea freshwater lake
b. Lampuuk beach
c. Gunung Leuser National Park
d. Mosque Baiturrahman
e. Fort Indra Patra
f. Kerkhof peucut (Dutch soldiers graves)
a. Medan Maimun palace (entrance fee of Rp 15,000 / person – open 08.00 – 17.00)
b. Medan Grand Mosque
c. Kesawan (souvenir pocket where the typical souvenirs of North Sumatra) Medan
d. Old City Hall Medan
e. Water tower Medan (Medan city icon)
f. Hanging Titi Medan (A bridge over the railroad tracks)
g. Building London Sumatra (Medan)
h. Field Post Office
i. Grace Field Museum
j. Zoo field
k. Helvetia plantation (tobacco)
a. Greenhill City
b. River Sembahe
c. Two-color waterfall
a. Gundaling (a type of tourist places in the hills. From this place can be seen Mount Sibayak and Sinabung)
b. Mount Sibayak
a. Parks Simalem Resort
b. waterfalls of the piso-piso
c. Village Tongging
a. Lake Toba
b. Samosir Island
a. Lake Kerinci
b. Kerinci Seblat National Park
c. Museum of Edinburgh
d. Mount Kerinci
a. Natural Mayang (family holiday)
b. SKA malls (shopping centers, there is also a hypermart)
c. Lake Limbungan
d. Bandar Serai
e. Market Bottom
f. Stanum Recreational Park
g. Spur line (traditional rowing regatta race from Riau a length of about 25-40 m with a crew of 40-60 people)
h. Waterfalls thunder Gemurai
a. Island Penyengat
b. Weary beach
c. Bintan Island
d. Mount Ranai
e. River Sebong
f. Trikora beach
g. Gunung Bintan
h. Waterfall generations
a. Parai coast mackerel
b. Matras Beach
c. Cape Coast Enchantment
d. Rebo beach
e. Leafy Stone beach
f. Sand beaches rice
g. Kerasak Cape Coast
h. Mount beach Namak
i. Uber Gulf Coast
j. Mount Maras
k. Tanjung Kelayang
l. Tanjung Binga
m. High point
n. Galangal Island
o. Punai beach
p. Cape Coast buried
q. Beach rock
a. Gorges Sianok
b. Anai Valley
c. Valley Harau
d. Morning Dew (near Lake Maninjau)
e. Lake Singkarak
f. Lake Maninjau
g. Lake Diateh and Under
h. Hail shaft (baths)
i. Puncak Lawang
j. Panorama Tabek Broken (located in the volcanic belt between the town and Batusangkar Bukittinggi, Indonesia)
k. Istano tongue or istano Pagaruyung (the most famous cultural tourism)
l. The root bridge
m. Shadow of Sani
n. Sweet water beach
o. Botanical Garden of Bung Hatta
a. Lake Ranau
b. Gunung Dempo
c. Musi river and the Ampera Bridge
d. Ulak Lia Lake
e. Lake Segayam
Tourism objects that are very popular in Sumatra is Lake Toba
Lake Toba is one of the largest lake in the world, and the largest and most popular in Indonesia. The lake is like an ocean which covers approximately 3000 km2. In the middle of the lake, there is a large island, the island of Samosir located at an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level.
The beauty of Lake Toba was amazing. The lake is surrounded by hills, so the atmosphere around the lake is comfortable, the air fresh and cool. Enjoy its beauty with a swim or rent a motor boat, circling around the lake. In the evening, can enjoy a quieter atmosphere yag light overlooking a beautiful sunset.
In the middle of Lake Toba, which is on the island of Samosir are popular natural attractions, the lake on the lake (Lake and Lake Aek Sidihoni Natonang); historical attractions in the tomb complex in the village of King Sidabutar Tomok; and tours of the complex architecture of traditional Batak house Toba Samosir. In Parapat, visitors who wish to visit the island of Samosir be riding freight ferries depart every hour to the village of Tomok, Samosir.
Based on research from Michigan Technological University researchers, the United States, at the site of Lake Toba, in the period 75 500 years ago, had been an almighty explosion that destroyed humans, animals and plants. The eruption was spewing rocks and ash as far as 2.000km3. Direction causing the eruption of vomit darkness for up to two weeks. The impact of the eruption was the formation of a massive volcanic crater, a crater was eventually filled with water which eventually formed a large lake, the Lake Toba. About the existence of Samosir Island, was formed due to magma pressure continuously that has not come out of the bowels of the earth.
This large lake has magical and cosmological values, because it is believed as the indwelling Namborru (seven ancestral goddess of Batak Tribe). When people want to hold the event Batak tribe peoples around the lake, they must first ask permission to Namborru. As in the celebration of the Feast of the People of Lake Toba is held annually, some ritual performed first as a form of respect for ancestors.
Location of Lake Toba is located in several districts, including District. Simalungun, Kab. Naidoo, Kab. North Tapanuli, Kab. Humbang Hasundutan, Kab. Karo, and Kab. Dairi, North Sumatra, Indonesia.Untuk reach tourist sites, visitors can go through the route-Parapat Medan or Medan route-Berastagi within approximately 176 miles and takes approximately four hours with two-wheelers / four.
Not hard to find lodging in the vicinity, either lodging or any class of star jasmine. Restaurants, cafes and food stalls there are also nearby.
“Indonesia currency” is the currency of payment instrument that is used in economic transactions of a country. For Indonesia, the rupiah currency.
Once upon a time, primitive man has not used the money, or medium of exchange. This is because by the time that humans can satisfy all the desires of the surrounding lam. When the natural resources they use up, they move on and start using natural resources around them anymore. It was only when the emergence of ancient human civilizations began to trade possessions with other people’s property, called barter. Then, after a more advanced age, people start using the tool changers, though not in money. The tool is called the money stuff. It was only after humans mastered the use of writings and letters, dikenallah money or so-called money trust (money fiduciair).
Rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. This currency is printed and arranged for use by Bank Indonesia, the ISO code 4217 IDR. Informally, the Indonesia currency is also called by the name of “silver”. A dollar is divided into 100 cents, even though inflation has made it no longer used except in the accounting records only at the bank.
Why Currencies Indonesia Rupiah Called
Ever kepikiran that Indonesia should Rupiah currency .. It must have been sometimes “implicit in the mind. Nahh .. This time let’s discuss a review of the origins of the rupiah currency in fact be the name of Indonesia.
The words “dollars” is derived from the word “rupee”, the currency of India. Indonesia has been using the currency of Dutch guilders in 1610 until 1817. After 1817, the currency was introduced Gulden Netherlands Indies.
Rupiah currency was first introduced officially at the time of Japanese occupation during World War 2, with the name of the Dutch East Indies rupiah. After the end of the war, the Bank of Java (Javaans Bank, next to Bank Indonesia) introduced the Java rupiah as a replacement.
NICA gulden currency created by the Allies and some currencies are printed collection of guerrilla also applies at the time.
Since 2 November 1949, four years after independence, Indonesia rupiah as the currency set a new nationality. Riau Islands and West Irian have their own variations of dollars but their use in 1964 was disbanded in 1974 in Riau and West Irian.
The Asian economic crisis of 1998 caused the rupiah fell as much as 35% and brought the downfall of the Soeharto government.
Rupiah is the currency that may be exchanged for free, but traded with the penalty due to high inflation levels.
Units under the rupiah
Rupiah has a unit underneath. In the early days of independence, the rupiah equivalent in value to the Netherlands Indies gulden, so that the units also used a smaller force in the colonial period.
Here are the units that had been used but no longer used due to the decline of the rupiah led a unit that is not of significant value.
* Cent, one hundredth of dollars (no coins broken one and five cents)
* Cepeng, hepeng, a quarter cents, from feng, used among the Chinese
mites, and a half cents
* Crippled, one-half cent
* Gobang or bump, two and a half cents
* Bite / sparkle / stuivers (Bld.), five cents (any fractional coins)
* Picis, ten cents (any fractional coins)
* Rope, a quarter rupiah (25 cents, no fractional coins of 25 and 50 cents)
There is also a unit of money, whose value is the third string.
Units above the rupiah There are two units in the rupiah is now not used anymore. ringgit, two and a half rupiah (fractional coins ever existed) Kupang, half ringgit.
Jakarta (ANTARA) – The earthquake in Aceh in 2004 and 2012 differ greatly because eight years ago the location of earthquakes along the subduction zone meeting of the Eurasian plate and Indo-Australia, now located in the Indo-Australian plate, said tsunami expert Doctor Subandono Diposaptono.
“Unlike a lot, had the earthquake occurred at the meeting of the Eurasian plate and Indo-Australia, is now happening in the Indo-Australian plate, or about 175 miles farther south,” said Subandono who is also the Director of Marine and Coastal Spatial and Small Islands Ministry of Marine and Fisheries in Jakarta on Wednesday night.
Thus the Aceh earthquake that happened this time is an intraplate earthquake, rather than as interplate earthquake measuring 9.1 on the Richter scale Aceh on December 26, 2004. Intraplate earthquakes do not cause a large tsunami as interplate earthquakes in the subduction zone.
“The earthquake in Aceh in 2004 led to the edge of the Indo-Australia plate springs upward along the 1,300 km perpendicular to the subduction zone where the Indian Ocean plate under the Eurasian plate infiltrate (megathrust), from the Andaman and Simeulue to make low tide and then slammed into the mainland, “he said.
Earthquake this time, he said, only causes a horizontal movement causes vibrations and ripples in the ocean waves. Even if there are at most high tsunami is only 10-20 cm height only, or at least no more than three feet.
Subandono also recalled the importance of spatial plans form the basis of development, particularly in the area of ??the earthquake and tsunami pontensial, so it is expected to minimize the risk of disaster.
“Unfortunately when we’re up to the most beautiful city, but since the tsunami comes again, and again the city was destroyed, then we have to build it again,” he said.
He cited Japan’s quake-hit SR 9 in March 2011 and caused a tsunami up to 10 meters and killed thousands of victims. However, a year after it has been no reconstruction effort since after all the new redevelopment plan in accordance with the spatial-based disaster mitigation is ripe.
Spatial plans, he said, is more important than the construction of sea walls or coastal forest is less effective in minimizing the risk of disaster.