Bali Indoneisa ; Bali comes from the word “Bal” in Sanskrit means “Strength”, and “Bali” means “sacrifice” which means that we should not forget our strength. So we are always ready to sacrifice. Bali has 2 national hero who was instrumental in maintaining the area I Gusti Ngurah Rai and I Gusti Ketut Jelantik.
The island of Bali is part of the Lesser Sunda Islands thousands of Denpasar. Other important places as Ubud is the arts center is located in Gianyar regency, while Kuta, Sanur, Seminyak, and Nusa Dua is a place that becomes tourism destination, both the beach and tourist resort. Ethnic groups were divided into 2 Bali: Bali Aga (original Balinese people usually live in the area Trunyan), and Mojopahit Bali (Balinese Hindu / Balinese descent Mojopahit).
ELEMENTS – CULTURAL ELEMENTS
Bali mostly using Balinese and Indonesian, the majority of Balinese people are bilingual or even trilingual. English is the third and the main foreign languages ??for the Balinese people are influenced by the needs of the tourism industry. Balinese language is divided into two, namely, language is the language of Bali Aga pronunciation is more rugged, and the language of Bali Mojopahit.yaitu language pronunciation is more subtle.
Banjar or be referred to as the village is a form of social units based on the unity of the region. Social unity is strengthened by the unity of the customs and religious ceremonies. Banjar Banjar Klian dikepalahi by serving as concerning all matters in the field of social and religious life, but often also have to solve problems that include the customary law of land, and the things that are public administration.
The Balinese have grown to know and the irrigation system subak system that regulates the irrigation and cultivation in paddy fields. And they also have to know who set the architectural layout of the room and building a building that resembles a Feng Shui. Architecture is an expression of symbolic communicative and educative. Bali also has a traditional weapon dagger is one of them. In addition to self-defense, according to the trust if the keris soaked in water to cure people bitten by venomous animals.
D. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Withdrawal in the lineage leading to the Balinese people are patrilineal. Caste system strongly influences the course of a marriage, because of a higher caste woman marries a lower caste man is not justified because there is a deviation, which would shame the family and dropped the whole caste prestige of female children.
In some areas of Bali (not all areas), the submission shall also apply customary dowry (petuku luh), but now it is mainly among the family of learned men, have disappeared.
Customary retreat settled after marriage affects kinship in a community association. There are 2 kinds of sedentary peoples who often true retreat that indigenous peoples are justified virilokal newlyweds settled around the center of the residence of the husband’s relatives, and indigenous peoples neolokal is a newlywed living alone determine the place of new residence. In Bali there are three major clan groups (triwangsa), namely: Brahmin as master of ceremonies, Knights are: group-specific klompok like arya Kepakisan and Jaba is a religious leader.
Village, a whole community of people living in Bali include two terms, namely: traditional villages and countryside department (administrative). Both are a union territory in connection with any religion or customs, while the service is unity admistratif village. Activities focus on areas of traditional village customs and religious ceremonies, while the village-centered services administration, governance and development.
In general, people bali livelihood is farming majority, on the plains where rainfall is quite good, especially beef and pork pertenakan as an important business in a rural community in Bali, both land and sea fishing which is odd pecaharian eyes, craft making craft objects including woven , sculptures, fabrics, carvings, percetakaan, coffee mills, cigarette factories, etc.. Efforts in this area to provide employment to residents. Because many tourists who visit Bali then arises the hotel business, travel, crafts shops.
Religion embraced by some people in Bali are Hindus about 95%, of the population of Bali, while the remaining 5% are adherents of Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Hinduism is the purpose of life to achieve balance and peace to live birth and batin.orang Hindus believe the concept of one God in Trinity, which is a form of Brahman (the creator), a form of Vishnu (the protector and maintainer), as well as a form of Shiva (the destroyer) . Place of worship called a temple retreat. Places where ancestor worship is called buffering. Hindu scriptures are the Vedas from India.
People who died in the Hindu cremation ceremony sanggat deemed essential to free the spirits of those who have passed away from earthly ties to heaven. Cremation itself is a cremation. The Feast of the people of Hindu religion is the practice in the Nyepi celebration of new year saka on December 1 of the month 10 (kedasa), but it is also Galungan, brass, saras Wati, Tumpek Landep, Tumpek uduh, and siwa ratri.
Guidance in the teachings of Hinduism namely: (1). Tattwa (philosophy of religion), (2). Ethics (morality), (3). Ceremony (yadnya). Retreat there are 5 kinds of ceremonies (five yadnya), namely (1). Yadnya human pregnancy ceremony into adulthood. (2). Pitra Yadnya ceremony devoted to the ancestral spirits. (3). God Yadnya ceremonies held in temples / shrines family. (4). Rsi yadnya yaituupacara within the framework of the inauguration of a pastor. (5). Bhuta yadnya the ceremony for the spirits around people who interfere with humans.
Cultural arts in Bali in the grade 3 main groups of fine arts such as painting, sculpture, art arsistektur, performing arts such as dance, literary arts, drama, music, and art audiovisual and film such as video art.
1. Manners: the habit of courtesy in the neighborhood association agreed between people in the group.
2. Nguopin: mutual cooperation.
3. Ngayah or ngayang: community service for religious purposes.
4. Courtesy: indigenous relations in polite society of persons of different sex.
In Bali types livelihood is farming rice field. The main livelihood began to shift in the types of non-farm livelihoods. This shift occurred because of that at the present time with the development of the tourism industry in Bali, then they come further considers livelihood are mainly in the population.
So many people sell their land to the tourism industry felt bigger and more quickly enjoyed. Current income derived mostly from non-farm livelihoods, such as carpenters, drivers, industrial, and domestic crafts. Household handicraft industry as leading the effort flour skid, skid coconut, rice penyosohan, embroidery or sewing business.