Indonesian Islands

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HISTORY OF INDONESIA

History Of Indonesia; On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in Japan, the United States that began to lower the moral spirit of the Japanese army in the world. A day later renamed BPUPKI PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) to further affirm the desire and the goal of achieving the independence of Indonesia. On August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, causing the Japanese surrendered to the United States and its allies. This moment was exploited by Indonesia for its independence.

 

Sukarno, Hatta, as leader of Radjiman Wedyodiningrat PPKI and as a former chairman of BPUPKI flown to Dalat, 250 km northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They reported that Japanese troops were on the verge of defeat and will give independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945, Sutan Syahrir had heard the news over the radio that Japan had surrendered to the Allies. Underground fighters prepared to proclaim the independence of Indonesia, and reject the form of independence is given as a gift Japanese. Syahrir poet Anwar told about the dropping of atomic bombs on Nagasaki and the Japanese had received an ultimatum from the Allies to surrender. Syahrir know about it through foreign radio broadcasts, which when it is forbidden. This information is then dispersed in the environment, especially the youth advocates Syahrir.

 

On August 12, 1945, Japan by Marshal Terauchi at Dalat, Vietnam, told Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman that the Japanese government will soon grant independence to Indonesia and the proclamation of independence can be implemented in a few days, depending on how the PPKI. [1] Despite this Japan wants Indonesia’s independence on August 24.

 

Two days later, when Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman return to the homeland of Dalat, Syahrir urged Soekarno proclaimed independence as soon as regard the meeting as a gimmick, Dalat Japan, because Japan at any time had to be surrendered to the Allies and to avoid a split in the camp nationalists, between the anti and pro-Japanese. Syahrir Hatta told about the meeting in Dalat.

Meanwhile, prepare Syahrir followers who will demonstrate and may even be ready to face the Japanese army in that they will use force. Syahrir has compiled a text of the proclamation and had been sent to all of Java to be printed and distributed.

Soekarno was not convinced that Japan had surrendered, and the proclamation of independence of Indonesia as it can cause great bloodshed, and can have fatal consequences if the fighters Indonesia is not ready. warned that Syahrir no right to declare independence because it is the right of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Meanwhile Syahrir is the governing body considers PPKI made in Japan and the proclamation of independence by PPKI just a ‘gift’ from Japan.

 

 

Emerging and growing INDONESIA NATIONAL MOVEMENT

 

A. Appears causes and development of Indonesia’s National Movement

Since the Europeans came to the territory of Indonesia, the Indonesian people have realized the consequences that arise from the arrival. Since the arrival of European nations, the resistance never ceased conducted by the Indonesian people. However periawanan-resistance was always a failure. This is due to any resistance that is limited only to the area, or just want to free up areas and the population of foreign powers. With these circumstances, foreign nationals can be easier to master.

 

Since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century has come the seeds of nationalism in Indonesia. The emergence of nationalist movements were not independent of the influence that comes from within and from outside.

 

a. The influence that comes from within (internal)

 

1) Memories of the past glory: before European imperialism (West) entered the territory of Indonesia, there are many great and glorious kingdom, such as the Kingdom of Srivijaya empire that controlled maritime trade and shipping lanes in the Straits of Malacca. The kingdom was once a center of trade and even the center of Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Well as the Majapahit Empire under King Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada assisted by Patih become the most powerful empire in almost all parts of the archipelago. In addition, the Kingdom of Majapahit empire also known as Nusantara, since its territory includes the islands in the archipelago.

 

2) The suffering and misery caused by imperialism: emerging and developing world imperialism brought tremendous change in people’s lives, especially in Indonesia. Implementation of imperialism in the region for the misery and suffering of indigenous peoples, because the invaders are simply trying to make profits for the glory of its own people. Misery and suffering that is the reason or the driver of the emergence of nation-resistance periawanan Indonesia.

 

3) The emergence of class scholars; class of intellectuals emerged everywhere as a result of the development and improvement of education. Result of the further spread of the intellectuals in society, there arose a variety of movements that oppose the invaders. Therefore, indigenous intellectuals appeared on the political scene and became the driving leadership of the Indonesian nationalist movement.

 

4) Progress in the political, socio-economic and cultural; up and development of Indonesian nationalist movement is also due to advances in the political, social, economic and cultural nation of Indonesia. (1) Progress in the field of political activity or the movement of nationalist parties wanted to subvert the political domination of the imperialists and colonialists Netherlands (West). Power of the natives at that time confined by the influence of Dutch colonial policy of strict and cruel. Practices and abuse of human rights abuses are often color the political life of colonial rule, the nationalist groups appeared to voice the aspirations of the colonized society. (2) Progress in the social economy; problem was seen in the removal of foreign economic exploitation. Deletion was intended to establish a society free of misery and squalor-DTA in accordance with the ideals of social justice. Improve the lives of the nation’s awareness of Indonesia is a priority and the ideals of the nationalist struggle. (3) Progress in the field of culture; the nationalists see endangered species and indigenous cultures are in a state of dying, so it needs to be given adequate protection and reconstruction. The fighters and nationalists need to pay attention to preserving the indigenous culture and to develop or integrate both cultures. Therefore the development of indigenous cultures that are not encouraging it, then the nationalist fighters make cultural sector became one of the ideals of the struggle.

 

The third field is simultaneously fought for unity, because they give the characteristics of the Indonesian nationalist struggle. Nationalists understand at first develop local or regional, but then becomes collective and extends to all parts of Indonesia who colonized and eventually became aware of the Indonesian nationalists.

 

b. Influences coming from abroad (external)

 

The influence of foreign considerable role in quickening the political movements in Indonesia among other things, the Japanese victory over Russia (1905), National Movement of India, the Philippine National Movement, Movement of Nationalist China, Turkey’s Nationalist Movement, the Egyptian nationalist movement.

 

1) Japanese victory against Russia (1905): Modernization of Japan has brought many changes to the development of the country and the nation of Japan in the international community at that time. Japan advanced rapidly in all fields. Even the Japanese military forces must be calculated out by Western nations, including the United States at the time. To prove the military forces of Japan, Korea became the first target. Gained the victory in the war against Japan Korea, causing the Japanese to continue its expansion into Manchuria. In the Japanese attack on Manchuria that the Japanese troops are dealing with Russia, and it has very widespread in Asia. Nations in Asia began to rise against Western colonialism. This proves that in many emerging and developing regions of Asia-gerkan movement that is national as in China, the Philippines, India, Turkey, Indonesia even to mainland Africa such as Egypt and so on.

 

2) National Movement of India: In the face of British rule, the movement of the people of India to form a national organization known as the All India National Congress. Well-known figures in the organization such as Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit J. Nehru, B.C. Tilak, Moh. Ali Jinah, Iskandar Mirza, Liquat Ali Khan and so on. Among the leaders of India, which is more well known is Mahatma Gandhi who has the following basic struggle. (A). Ahimwi (forbidden to kill), the anti-war movement, (b). Hartnl India is a popular movement in the form of action that does not do anything even if they remain in the office or factory and so on, (c). Satyagrnhn India is a popular movement for not cooperating with the British colonial government, (d). Swacicsi the movement of people of India to put on goods made in their own country.

 

3) Movement of the Philippines Nationality: Filipino people’s movement is driven and fueled by Dr. Jose Rizal in order to expel the Spanish colonizers of the Philippines. Dr. Jose Rizal was arrested and on 30 September 1896, he was sentenced to death. Then the movement is continued by Emilio Aquinaldo and the Philippines had declared independence on June 12, 1898 but which had gained independence did not last long, because of the emergence of the United States which had abolished freedom. Philippines controlled by the United States and the new freedom given by the United States on July 4, 1946.

 

4) People’s Movement of Nationalist China; movement is led by Dr. Sun Yat Mon He held a renewal in all sectors of national life of China. Basic struggle proposed by Sun Yat Sen is the San Min Chu I, which consists of (a). Republic of China China is a nation state, (b). China’s government prepared on the basis of democracy or sovereignty belongs to the people, (c). The Chinese government prioritizes social welfare for its people.

 

5) The movement of Young Turks (1908); movement led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha. He demanded a renewal and moderrusasi in all sectors of society life.

 

6) The movement of Egyptian Nationalism: The movement is led by Arabi Pasha (1881-1882) with a goal against the Europeans, especially British rule over the land of Egypt.

With the growing national movement in various regions in Asia and in Africa had a great impact on the people of Indonesia in the struggle against Dutch colonial rule. Movements that emerged in Indonesia was marked by the emergence of modern organizations founded by the educated. Ultimate goal of any organization is the independent movement of the people of Indonesia from Dutch colonial rule or liberate the nation of Indonesia. The emergence of the movement of the people of Indonesia is marked by the establishment of the organization Budi Utomo dated May 20, 1908. Even this year be a milestone for the rise of Indonesia against Dutch colonial rule.

 

2. The ideology of the Nationalist Movement Growing in Indonesia

 

Beginning of the 20th century in the is known as the National Revival period. The growth of consciousness that animates the process according to the form of its manifestation has been through reasonable measures, ranging from the birth of liberal ideas and the emancipation of underdeveloped status paced, well rooted in tradition and created by the colonial situation. Then immediately following the progress of ideas and their ideals to improve the standard of life of the nation of Indonesia. The ideas that underlie the movement would appear that organizations grow and develop at that time. In fact each has the organizational and ideological foundation that will strengthen the position and struggle.

Ideologies that emerged and developed in the national movement of Indonesia, among others, Ideology Liberalism, Nationalism, Communism, Democracy, Islamism and Pan others.

 

Ideology of Liberalism. The ideology of liberalism was introduced in Indonesia by the Dutch people who support the struggle of the Indonesian nation. Dutch people are going to see a lot of distortions such as by acting so far outside the boundaries of humanity. The actions of the Dutch colonial government which they condemn as acts of extortion, cruelty or torture, and so forth.

 

Problems such as these they delivered on time organized by the parliamentary session in the Netherlands. They strongly condemned all acts committed by the Dutch with their accomplices in the region of Indonesia. They proposed that the Dutch royal government ordered the implementation of the ideology of liberalism in Indonesia. The ideology of liberalism can be expected to bring the people of Indonesia to change for the better.

 

The ideology of liberalism is a priority to understand that individual freedom or the freedom of people’s lives. Because the nature of freedom that people can develop and work to improve the welfare of her life. The ideology of liberalism was developed by political organizations in Indonesia such as Indische Partij.

 

Ideology of nationalism. Nationalism is the ideology of the first time introduced by the political organizations that emerged in the region of Indonesia. Nationalism became the basis of the struggle ideology of the Indonesian National Party (PNI), chaired by Ir. Sukarno. Nationalism as an ideology shows a nation that has common culture, language, and region. In addition, common ideals and goals. Thus the group can feel a deep loyalty to the nation.

 

PNI as a nationalist party whose ideology has a goal to fight for the life of a free nation Indonesia. Even his political ideals which Indonesia achieved independence and sovereign, and expelled the Dutch colonialism in Indonesia.

Communist ideology. The ideology of communism was introduced first by Sneevliet, a railway employee is a Dutch national. The ideology of communism is embodied in the establishment of a named organization Democratis The Social Indische Vereeniging (ISDV). ISDV organization is very difficult to get support from the people because people are less trusting of the Dutch.

 

Difficulty obtaining popular support, then a relationship with Sneevliet Semaun, a branch chief in Semarang SI Islam. Relations between Semaun Sneevliet with the Communist Party led to the formation of Indonesia (PKI) in 1920.

PKI is a very radical movement, followed by an uprising in 1926 and 1927. However, due to the failure of the revolt, the CPI used as teriarang party in Indonesia during Dutch colonial rule.

 

Democratic ideology. The ideology of democracy first appeared in Greece with a system of direct democracy. This means that the people involved and determine the course of a government. However, democracy is unlikely to be implemented in Indonesia during the national movement. This is because the Indonesian nation was still under Dutch colonial rule. The Netherlands is not possible to implement a democratic system in Indonesia, because it would harm the Dutch colonial government power.

 

The new democratic system can be implemented in the region of Indonesia after Indonesia’s independence. Democratic system is implemented in Indonesia known as Pancasila democracy.

 

The ideology of Pan-Islamism. The ideology of Pan-Islamism is an understanding that aims to unite Muslims worldwide. This ideology appears closely related to the condition of the 19th century which is the decline of the Islamic world. Meanwhile, the Western world is in progress and make the conquest of the Islamic countries, including Indonesia are predominantly Muslim.

 

Pan-Islamism is a radical and progressive movements. It is highly recognized by the people or the countries of Western imperialism, including the Dutch who colonized Indonesia. Spirit embodied in the movement of Pan-Islamism has been raised with a strong sense of nationalism based on religious ties. This ideology has encouraged the emergence of organizations based on religion in the region of Indonesia such as Islam SI (SI), Muhammadiyah, and others.

 

B. STRATEGY ORGANIZATION MOVEMENT INDONESIA NATIONALITY

 

At the time of the Indonesian nationalist movement there are two things worth noting as a fundamental moment in history. First, the emergence of the Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands. Association of Indonesia is the most vocal organizations in Indonesia’s independence voiced by implementing national action and believe in the power of its own. Association of Indonesia is a movement that is able to generate goals and ideals against imperialism and colonialism. With all the progressive political action movement of the Association of Indonesia should be a “political manifesto” first of all a national movement that had existed since 1908 until the 1920’s. Poliriknya Manifesto is an independent Indonesia. Second, the emergence of the Youth Pledge. That event is the crystallization of all the aspirations and ideals of the people of Indonesia at that time to unite to free themselves from the invaders. Youth Pledge foundation trilogy that is contained in a homeland of Indonesia, a nation of Indonesia and the Indonesian language.

 

In such circumstances, then in 1908 began to stand up and develop modern organizations in Indonesia that are both political, economic, and social and cultural rights.

 

A. Budi Utomo (BU)

 

In the 20th century appears as a driver of the few doctors in Asia such as Dr. Sun Yat Sen in China, Dr. Jose Rizal in the Philippines, as well as in Indonesia show doctors like Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo, Dr. Sutomo, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Gunawan Mangunkusumo. The doctors were faced with the rise because of the suffering of the people both in terms of economic, physical, and humanity.

 

Doctors Wahidin Sudirohusodo diligently to spread the ideals of Java can be formed an association which aims to promote and finance the education of children who can not attend school but has intelligence. Her goal was received from a medical student in Jakarta as Java Sutomo, Gunawan Mangunkusumo, Cipto Mangunkusumo and so forth. Finally, on May 20, 1908 Sutomo and his friends founded a society that is berinama Budi Utomo in Jakarta. The first congress was held in October 1908 and managed to pick Duke Tirtokusumo (a regent) as chairman and Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo as vice chairman.

 

To encourage the spirit of its members, Budi Utomo mencanang the guidelines into the bike and the boy’s parents became his driver, so the ship stranded at sea corals and safely reached the harbor. In addition, Congress produced a decision about the destination of the movement, which is to ensure and maintain a respectable life as a nation. This society is engaged in social, educational, teaching, and culture.

Budi Utomo association membership was originally limited to the areas of Java and Madura, Bali and then added, because they have the same culture. If the views of its membership, these associations are regional (local). However, the society also has to be said to be national. This was evident when the establishment of associations of political parties such as the National Political consensus Pemimpunan Indonesia (PPPKI), Budi Utomo participate in it. Budi Utomo national movement becomes increasingly apparent that the amendment of the name Budi Budi Utomo became President (letter a) and its purpose is clearly visible since 1928 participated implement the ideals of the unity of Indonesia.

 

Budi Utomo conduct further integration organization derigan seasas and congenial. Above considerations that Budi Utomo then melting into one with PBI (United Nations Indonesia) to Parindra Party (Indonesia Raya).

 

2. Association of Indonesia (PI)

 

Student youth movement in foreign countries (the Netherlands) have a major impact on politics and the youth movement in the homeland of Indonesia. In 1908, the youth of Indonesia in the Netherlands set up associations with the name of the Indische Vereeniging. These are social gatherings with the initial goal is for the welfare of its members residing in the Netherlands. Suwardi Suryaningrat arrival and his friends to the Netherlands took a major influence on the development of these associations. Moreover with the World War I and the echo of the motto of Woodrow Wilson (President of the United States) that states that have recognized the existence of the right of set / determinations (self determination), the motto would give encouragement to members to keep fighting the Indische Vereeniging.

 

In 1922, Indische Vereeniging Vereeniging renamed to Indonesische (Association of Indonesia). Two years later in 1924, the Association of Indonesia clearly states its purpose to fight for the independence of Indonesia. The way to achieve independence was done by implementing national action and believe in the power of its own.

 

This society has a media magazine caters to the aspirations of all its members. Magazines organization called the Indian Association of Indonesia’s son and later became an independent Indonesia. Its members have the attitude and the nature of its own, that there is a radical revolutionary and there is moderate. Radical group after completing his studies and returned to Indonesia in 1927 and joined the fighters Indonesia Indonesia to set up the National Party (PNI).

 

Propaganda Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands carried out actively. The organization is in contact with international agencies that benefit the Indonesian struggle. The relationship is done by Association I ‘Etude des Civilisation Orientates (founded in Paris in 1925). One of the activities of the Association of Indonesia in the year 1926-1927 is attending an international congress such as:

o International Congress of Democrats in Bierville (1926) and the Association of Indonesia represented by Drs. Moh. Hatta.

o Congress of the League Against Imperialism and Oppression in Brussels (1927) and the Association of Indonesia represented by Drs. Moh. Hatta.

In Congress, the Association of Indonesia managed to attract the sympathy of the league with a resolution supporting the Indonesian independence movement, and demanded the removal intemiran happened to the people of Indonesia. But the movement of the Indonesian Association of nimble and agile it would draw suspicion from the Dutch colonial government. Activities of the Association of Indonesia associated with the occurrence of rebellion PartaiKomunis Indonesia (PKI) in 1926-1927. As a result, its leaders were arrested as Drs. Mohammad Hatta, Sastroamidjojo Ali, Abdul Madjid Djojodiningrat, Datuk Nasir Pamuntjak. When the Association of Indonesia perniinpin is brought to trial, Drs. Mohammad Hatta made a brilliant speech in defense of the title of an independent Indonesia. The defense in legal terms by Mr. Dyus (a member of the Labour Party). Because it is not proven guilty, then in 1928 they were released.

The arrest of the defendants caused great sympathy in Indonesia. PNI meeting to provide support to the Indonesian students in Holland. On the advice of PNI, the Association of Indonesia PPPKI place as an outpost in the fight for Indonesia’s independence.

 

3. SI Islam

In 1911 the city of Solo appeared the trade association of Islam with a Muslim merchant named Haji SI Samanhudi as a leader. Actually, this association has been in existence since 1909, when under the leadership of RM. Tirtoadisuryo a member of the Muslim traders. Since the association was led by Haji Samanhudi it becomes very significant and wide influence among Muslim traders.

But then, an intellectual of Surabaya named Haji Omar Said (HOS) Cokroaminoto the promoters change the association as well as Trade SI SI Islam became Islam (SI). That change was a major effect on the membership system. Members are no longer the only Muslim traders, but already encompass all Muslims from various walks of life. The name change occurred in 1912 that contain the content and spirit as well as focusing on the religion of Islam with all its manifestations.

Meanwhile, Islam SI involvement in the Volksraad (People’s Council) protested by members, such as Semaun. However, Islam SI wanted to show his loyalty to the government, even though the government knew that the organization is very big influence on society. To that end, the Dutch government on an ongoing basis and follow the movements of Islam SI near. Islam SI representatives who sit in that body was Abdul Muis (author) and HOS Cokroaminoto (organizer and orator).

Apparently the influence of Islam in society SI movement is very strong. His influence spread to all parts of Indonesia, giving rise to the rebellion, as shown below.

 

* Revolt in Toli-Toli (South Sulawesi); casualties of this rebellion, which is a Dutch civil servants and some employees of Indonesia. The rebellion was connected with the arrival of Abdul Muis to Sulawesi, who happened to be the purposes of the party, so he was accused of involvement in the uprising.

* Rebellion Cimareme (West Java), this rebellion is due to the protests of the peasants who refused to give rice to the government with a predetermined price. In the rebellion, SI Islam also accused of involvement.

 

In 1920, established the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) in Indonesia with Semaun as chairman. Semaun position is very dangerous for the development of Islam SI, because at that time also served as Chairman Semaun SI Semarang branch of Islam. Therefore, in 1921, SI Islam issued regulations concerning the discipline of the organization and declared Islam forbids SI members to become members of other organizations. The ban was protested by Semaun. Thus, SI Islam can not maintain the integrity of the organization and split into SI Islam, led by Semaun Red and White Sarekat Cokroaminoto led by HOS. However, SI Islam until the moment it’s not the name of the party.

In 1929, SI Islam claims to be the party with the name of Islam Indonesia Sarekat Party (PSII), year also become very important for SI Islam, because in addition to losing many of its members, SI Islam also took radical steps, that is out of the Volksraad. It was an act of noncooperation and tactics implemented by SI Islam to the Dutch colonial government.

Then in 1930, SI Islam in decline due to the various divisions within the organization. SI Islam is divided into three parties namely Kartosuwiryo PSII, PSII Abikusno, Indonesia and the Islamic Party of SI. The party ceased its activities after the Japanese occupation of Indonesia.

 

4. Indische Partij

Douwes Dekker, Cipto Mangunkusumo, and Suwardi Suryaningrat are the three founders of the Indische Partij (1912). It is a party slogan for the Indian Ocean, which means that Indonesia is only for the people who settled and lived in Indonesia without exception and regardless of any type of people. Indonesia is the Indian name for that time.

The party’s goal is to prepare an independent life of the Indonesian nation. Open to all community members residing in all parts of Indonesia. But in reality, which first became a member of this party is an Indo-European people. Therefore, these parties can not develop into a mass party. This was caused by the colonial stelsel still a barrier in the process of interaction or association with the foreigners in Indonesia.

Indische Partij has demonstrated its political line is clear and unequivocal, and wanted a unified multiracial population. The purpose of this party is really revolutionary, because he wanted to break the reality of racial politics carried out by the Dutch colonial government in Indonesia. Action was evident when in 1913 the Dutch government will hold a memorial service free Holland 100 years of colonial France (Napoleon Bonaparte), by way of levy funds from the people of Indonesia. The action figures were burning anger of Indonesia such as Suwardi Suryaningrat, Cipto Mangunkusumo, Douwes Dekker. They want to thwart the intention of the Netherlands with a brochure entitled A / s ik een Nederlander was (If I were a Dutchman). Fill in the brochure include the following.

“….. If I were a Dutchman, I protest the memorial to be held. I will warn my friends that are actually quite dangerous invaders at that time held a memorial celebration of independence. I would warn all of the Dutch, not to mention civilization Indonesia The new up and be brave. Indeed, I would protest bloody murder ….. ”

An increasingly harsh criticism against the Dutch colonial government, led to three characters Indische Partij arrested. In 1913 they were exiled to Holland. But in 1914, Cipto Mangunkusumo returned to Indonesia because of illness, while Suwardi Suryaningrat Douwes Dekker and newly restored to Indonesia in 1919.

Douwes Dekker still go into politics and Suwardi Suryaningrat foray into the world of education and further established a college student named Park. Suwardi Suryaningrat later known as Ki Hajar Dewantara. Although Indische Partij can not resist the will of the Netherlands, but the struggle they still have an enormous significance in the Indonesian nationalist movement to achieve independence.

 

5. Muhammadiyah

Muhammadiyah was established in November 18, 1912 in Yogyakarta was founded by KH Ahmad Dahlan (1868-1923) was a great scholar of Yogyakarta. With the purpose of: (1) develop in accordance with instructions of Islam and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad SWA, (2) assist and improve people’s lives, (3) promote education in Indonesia.

Muhammadiyah charitable work done in an effort to uphold and enforce the religion of Islam, including: (1) establish, maintain, and helping establish schools based on the religion of Islam to enhance the dignity of the Indonesian nation, (2) Establish and maintain places of worship; ( 3) establish and maintain hospitals to maintain public health, (4) establish and maintain an orphanage for the orphans, (5) make up the body a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, (6) form an autonomous organization to accommodate people according to age, sex to enhance the dignity of a people fighting Islam.

Muhammadiyah organization was called the followers of the Prophet Muhammad meant by trying to live the teachings of Islam according to his teachings.

 

6. Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI)

At the 20th century came a few employees of the Dutch communist-leaning in Indonesia. One of them is Sneevliet. In addition, as an employee, Sneevliet also actively spreading communism. Sneevliet realize that his efforts to gain popular support Indonesia through the establishment of the organization will not succeed. That is why he was in a relationship with Semaun which at that time served as Chairman of the Semarang branch of Islam SI.

In 1914 Sneevliet founded the Marxist-style organization with the name Social Democratic Indische Vereeniging (ISDV), based in Semarang. Together with Semaun, Sneevliet succeeded in developing a sensible ISDV Marxist and influence the members of the SI Islam. This noodle is also the cause of Islam’s split into two SI, SI Islam is the leader HOS Cokroaminoto White and Red with leaders of Islamic SI Semaun.

In 1920 the Red Sarekat ISDV joined and formed the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). The party headed by his deputy Semaun and Darsono. However, several prominent Dutch people who did not approve the creation of the PKI finally broke away and then formed the Social Democratic Party Indies (ISDP) with F. Bahler as chairman.

PKI relationship with the Dutch colonial government increasingly tenuous even worse. This is due to the onset of strikes that led to the problem of conflict between the Dutch colonial government with the Communist Party.

Then in 1926 PKI rebellion in West Java (about Bantam) and in 1927 in West Sumatra. With the failure of PKI rebellion, then in 1927 the Dutch colonial government declared illegal Communist Party as the party standing in the region of Indonesia.

After the rebellion failed, Musso, Alimin and other PKI leaders fled abroad. PKI leaders who do not agree with rebellion fled to Thailand and then founded a new party called the Party of Indonesia (PARI), based in Bangkok (1927).

 

7. Indonesian National Party (PNI)

When Budi Utomo, SI Islam, and PKI develops, there is also a class of intellectuals who took part in the Indonesian nationalist movement. They moved through the club with the aim of which is national. The club is Aglemen Study Club in Bandung and Surabaya Study Club Indies as well as other clubs are found in all cities in Indonesia.

The clubs grew into political parties that are national. Aglemen Study Club in Bandung Indonesia grew into the National Party (PNI) and the Indies Study Club in Surabaya Indonesia grew Nation Party (FBI) and later became the Party of Indonesia Raya (Parindra).

In 1927, PNI established by figures such as Ir. Sukarno, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Ir. Anwari, Sartono SH, SH Budiarto, and Dr. Samsi. PNI as a national party that has developed very rapidly, even in a very short time has managed to attract the attention and sympathy of the masses. The revolutionary nationalist groups can be accommodated at this party.

In 1927, initiated the founding PPPKI PNI (Indonesian National Political Association agreement). The agency is a coordinating body of various streams to raise the unity of action against imperialism or colonialism.

The emergence of a provocative story that stated that PNI will carry out the rebellion, resulting in the Dutch government did arrest the leaders of the PNI. PNI leaders who were arrested were Ir. Sukarno, Billy Mangkupraja, Maskun, and Suriadinata. Then the four men were faced with a court in Bandung in 1930. In the trial that, Ir. Soekarno asked defense speech, entitled Indonesia Sues. Defenders of the fighters of Indonesia is Sartono SH, Sastromuljono SH, and SH Prawiradiputra Idik. As for as the trial judge was Mr. Dr. R. Siegembeek Hoekelen van. District court sentenced him to Ir dam. Soekarno with 4 years in prison, Maskun 2 years in prison, Billy Mangkupraja 1 year 8 months, 1 year and 3 months Suriadinata.

PNI is the basic struggle for socio-nationalist and democratic socio-shortened to Marhaenism. Attitude toward the Dutch colonial government was nonkooperatif. It’s the same principle with the principle of the struggle of the Association of Indonesia in the Netherlands. This is due to mem-PNI have a very close relationship with the Association of Indonesia, so the huge influence of the PNI.

 

8. Party of Indonesia (Partindo)

Because PNI leaders were arrested, the party leadership held by Sartono SH. However, Sartono concerned about the continuation and development of the PNI. Sartono concerned PNI will end up like PKI is considered a party banned by the Dutch colonial government. Sartono concern that affects the members. For safety, PNI eventually disbanded and a new party stands the Party of Indonesia (Partindo) 1931. However, those who do not approve of the dissolution of the PNI was eventually form another party or by the name of the New PNI PNI Education.

After Ir. Soekarno was released from prison in 1931, he chose Partindo as a means of struggle. The presence of Ir. Sukarno in Partindo inspiring struggle Partindo members, as well as the Dutch colonial government worried. Ir. Sukarno was arrested again and exiled to Ende on Flores Island. In 1937 moved to Bengkulu and in 1943 released by the Japanese.

 

9. National Education Indonesia (PNI Education)

Those who do not agree with the dissolution of the PNI, form a political party with the name of National Education Indonesia (PNI Education), led by Drs. Mohammad Hatta and Sutan Sjahrir. The party is based in London. Education is the principle struggle PNI sticking to the principle nonkooperatif. Models struggle with what has been done by the Association of Indonesia, Indonesian National Party, and Party of Indonesia. The party had more influence in rural areas.

Apparently this party movement is considered very dangerous position of the Dutch government. Therefore, its leaders were arrested and exiled to Digul (1934). In 1936 they moved to Holland, in 1942 moved to Sukabumi until the arrival of the Japanese.

 

10. Party of Indonesia Raya (Parindra)

Party embryo Indonesia Raya (Parindra) is Indische Study Club in Surabaya, led by Dr. Sutomo. In 1931, the per-set is then converted to the Nation Party of Indonesia (FBI). The purpose is to enhance the degree of struggle of Indonesia to do the real thing and can be felt by many people, such as promoting education, establishing cooperative people, set up banks for the people and also set up a union fishermen.

PB1 repeatedly approached by Budi Utomo. In attempts to bring about that approach, which plays an important role is Dr. Sutomo (FBI chairman and cofounder of Budi Utomo). Peng-combined the two organizations took place in 1935 and subsequently established Fartai Indonesia Raya (Parindra). The purpose of it is to achieve Parindra Indonesia Raya, with its chairman Dr. Sutomo and serve as the city of Surabaya city center of all activities.

Further development, many organizations are joining the Parindra, such as Sumatra SI, SI Ambon, The Betawi, Timore Verbond and so on. Cooperative tactics of struggle is incidental (in collaboration with the Dutch colonial government). It turned out to benefit the nation and the tactics of the Indonesian nationalist movement. A character who sits in Parindra Volksraad (People’s Council) is Muhammad Husni Thamrin. He was known as an expert because of frequent debate cast criticisms of the Dutch colonial government in the People’s Council session.

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