Geologically, Indonesia is at the confluence of three tectonic plate boundaries in the world, namely the Eurasian Plate, the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. These conditions resulted in some areas there is seismic activity and active volcanism. Throughout its history, Indonesia has been hit by earthquakes several times with a very powerful force that causes the downfall of many victims. Here, a massive earthquake events that have occurred in Indonesia are taken from various sources.
1. Padang earthquake / Sumatra in 1797 (8.4 SR)
1797 Sumatra earthquake is the first in a series of large earthquakes is the rupture of the Sumatra segment of the Sunda megathrust. This causes a very destructive tsunami near the Padang, where a 150-200 ton British ship pushed up as far as 1km inland river Arau.
Sumatra Island is located at convergent plate boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Highly oblique convergence between the plates near Sumatra, the displacement is accommodated by dip-slip faulting along near subduction zones, known as the Sunda megathrust, and close to a pure strike-slip faulting along the Great Sumatran fault. Major slip events in subduction zone interface is usually the type of megathrust. Historically, giant megathrust earthquakes have been recorded in the year 1797, 1833, and 1861, most of them associated with a devastating tsunami.
2. Earthquake Mentawai / Sumatra 1833 (SR 8.8 to 9.2)
1833 Sumatra earthquake occurred on 25 November 1833, around 22:00 local time, with a magnitude estimated in the range of 8.8 to 9.2 magnitude. This causes huge tsunami that flooded the southwestern coast of the island. There is no reliable record of deaths, only information about the extent of damage associated with earthquakes or tsunamis. However, clearly the tsunami destroyed along the southwest coast of Sumatra from Pariaman to Bengkulu. There is also one report of significant damage in this disaster Seychelles.Besarnya been estimated using coral records microatolls appointment.
3. Nias earthquake / Sumatra in 1861 (8.5 SR)
1861 Sumatra earthquake occurred on February 16, 1861. This earthquake is one in a sequence of earthquakes that ruptured adjacent parts of Sumatra segment of the Sunda megathrust. This causes the tsunami disaster which caused several thousand deaths. Quake was felt as far east part of peninsular Malaysia and Java.
4. 1938 Banda Sea earthquake (magnitude 8.5)
1938 Banda Sea earthquake occurred in the Banda Sea region on February 1, 1938, and is the largest earthquake in the 9th-20th century. The strength of this earthquake was 8.5 on the Richter Scale, and caused a tsunami as high as 1.5 meters, but there were no casualties in this incident.
5. Aceh Earthquake / Indian Ocean in 2004 (9.1 to 9.3 SR)
Strength of the quake was initially reported to be 9.0 SR. The quake occurred at 7:58 ‘.53” pm. The epicenter is located at longitude 3316 ° N 95.854BT approximately 160 km west of Aceh as deep as 10 kilometers. This earthquake is an earthquake terdahsyat within the last 40 years that hit Aceh. The earthquake caused a tsunami killed approximately 230,000 people in 8 countries. Tsunami waves as high as 30 meters. This disaster is the biggest killers in history. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Inda, and Thailand is a country with the largest number of deaths.
6. 2005 Nias earthquake (magnitude 8.7)
2005 Sumatra earthquake occurred at 23:09 pm on March 28, 2005. Earthquake center at 2 ° 04 ’35” N latitude and 97 ° 00′ 58” East, 30 km below the surface of the Indian Ocean, 200 km west of Sibolga, Sumatra or 1400 km northwest of Jakarta, about half the distance between the island of Nias and Simeulue. Seismic records to figure 8.7 on the Richter scale (BMKG in Indonesia recorded 8.2) and the vibration feels to Bangkok (Thailand) about 1,000 miles away. With the power of 8.7 magnitude, this earthquake is the second largest earthquake in the world since 1964 until 2010. Soon after, came the arrival of a tsunami warning is likely that ultimately did not happen. The quake was likely triggered by the earthquake that has rocked Aceh in December 2004.
7. Yogyakarta earthquake in 2005 (6.2 SR)
Yogyakarta earthquake is strong tectonic earthquake events that rocked Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 27, 2006 at approximately 5:55 ‘pm for 57 seconds. The earthquake measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale. According to BMKG, the position coordinates of the epicenter of the earthquake is located at 8.26 ° latitude and 110.31 ° East. In general, the position of the earthquake is located about 25 km south-southwest of Yogyakarta, 115 km south of Semarang, 145 miles south-southeast of Pekalongan and 440 km east-southeast of Jakarta. Although the earthquake hypocenter was at sea, but did not cause a tsunami. The quake also felt in Solo, Semarang, Purworejo, Kebumen and Banyumas. Vibration also had felt a number of cities in East Java province as Ngawi, Madison, Kediri, Terri, Magetan, Pacitan, Blitar and Surabaya. Also destroyed thousands of homes flattened or damaged, but can not be occupied again. The houses in Wedi, Gantiwarno, and Prambanan is the most devastated. At least 1224 buildings were damaged and claimed more than 3000 people. Public facilities, such as schools, district offices, police station offices, village, did not escape destruction. Asphalt also cracked and torn in many places. Telephone lines and power outages also were cut off by the quake.
8. Tasikmalaya 2006 earthquake (7.7 magnitude)
July 2006 Java earthquake was magnitude 7.7 earthquake, BMKG version, on the Richter scale off the coast of West Java, Indonesia. Occurred on July 17, 2006 at 8:19 ‘pm. This earthquake caused a tsunami as high as 2 meters which destroyed a house on the south coast of Java, killing at least 659 people. The tsunami that struck coastal villages in the south of Java in Cipatujah, Tasikmalaya and Pangandaran, Kudat. Reported beach vacation spot in Pangandaran in West Java had severely damaged. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake was centered on the 9295 LS 107 347 ° ° E, 48.6 km below the seabed. Located 225 km (140 miles) northeast of Christmas Island and 240 km (150 miles) southeast of Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, and 358 km (222 miles) south of Jakarta.
9. Padang earthquake in 2009 (7.6 Richter)
West Sumatra earthquake in 2009 occurred with the strength of 7.6 on the Richter scale off the coast of West Sumatra at 17:16 ‘.10 “pm on 30 September 2009. This earthquake occurred off the coast of Sumatra, about 50 km northwest of Padang. Earthquake damage severe in some areas in West Sumatra as Pariaman District, the city of Padang, the South Coast District, Pariaman City, Bukittinggi City, City of Padangpanjang, Agam regency, Solok City, and West Pasaman. According to data from at least 1117 people died in this earthquake spread in 3 cities and 4 counties in West Sumatra, were seriously injured casualties reached 1214 people, 1688 people were lightly injured, the victim lost a man. While the 135 448 houses were severely damaged, 65,380 houses were damaged, and 78 604 homes with minor damage.
10. Mentawai Earthquake / West Sumatra in 2010 (7.2 magnitude)
This earthquake occurred in the Mentawai Islands regency, West Sumatra, on Monday, October 24th, 2010 at 21:42 pm. Earthquake centered on the 3.61-99 south latitude, 93 east longitude at the center 78 miles southwest of South Pagai, Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra; 174 km Southwest Bengkulu Mukomuko-high tsunami was followed by 3-7m. An earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale has also led to 3-10 meter high tsunami that resulted in at least 77 villages were destroyed and killed over 30 people. (FTI)