Indonesia volcano; Indonesia has many volcanoes are still active today. Some of them had a fantastic record that makes the eruption of the world to feel the impact. The magnitude of the eruption of a volcano can be calculated using measurements of VEI.
Volcanic explosivity index (VEI), presented by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self of the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the magnitude of volcanic eruptions.
8. Kelud (VEI = 4)
Since the 15th century, Mount Kelud has claimed over 15,000 lives. This volcanic eruption in 1586 claimed the lives of more than 10,000 inhabitants. A system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and still serves to this day after the eruption in 1919 claimed the lives of thousands of cold lava floods swept settlements.
In the 20th century, recorded Kelud erupted in 1901, 1919 (May 1), 1951, 1966, and 1990. In 2007 the mountain was again increased its activity. This pattern brings the vulcanologist 15 on an annual cycle for the eruption of this volcano.
7. Mount Merapi (VEI = 4)
Mount Merapi is the youngest in a collection of volcanoes in southern Java. The mountain is located in a subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian plate continues to move down the Eurasian Plate. The eruption took place in the area since 400,000 years ago, and up to 10,000 years ago, the type of eruption is effusive. After that, the eruptions became explosive, with viscous lava domes of lava rise.
Small eruptions occur every 2-3 years, and the larger about 10-15 years. Merapi eruptions whose impact is greater among others in the years 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, and 1930.
Major eruption in 1006 made the whole central part of Java island shrouded in gray. It is estimated, the eruption caused the ancient Mataram kingdom should be moved to East Java. Eruption in 1930 destroyed 13 villages and killed 1400 people.
6. Mount Galunggung (VEI = 5)
Mount Galunggung ever recorded erupted in 1882 (VEI = 5). Early signs of eruption known in July 1822, where the water becomes murky and muddy Cikunir. The results of examination of the crater showed that hot water is murky and sometimes appear in the column of smoke from the crater.
Then on October 8, s.d. October 12, the eruption of reddish sand produces a very rainy summer, fine ash, pyroclastic and lava. Lava flow moves to the southeast following the river flows. This eruption killed 4011 people and destroyed 114 villages, with damage to the land to the east and south as far as 40 miles from the mountain top.
5. Gunung Agung (VEI = 5)
Mount Agung last erupted in 1963-64 and is still active, with a large and deep crater that sometimes smoke and ash. From a distance, the mountain is visible cone, although they have such a large crater.
From the top of the mountain, it is possible to see the summit of Mount Rinjani on Lombok island, although both mountains are frequently covered with clouds.
On February 18, 1963, local residents heard a loud explosion and saw a cloud rising from the crater of Mount Agung. On February 24, lava began flowing down the northern slope of the mountain.
On March 17, the volcano erupted, sending debris 8-10 km into the air and produce large pyroclastic flows. This current is much destroying villages, killing about 1500 people. A second eruption on May 16, causing the flow of heat clouds that killed 200 other people.
4. Krakatau (VEI = 6)
Krakatoa is a volcanic island that is still active and located in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. This name was never pinned on a volcanic peak there (Mount Krakatau) which vanish because of eruptions themselves on 26-27 August 1883.
The eruption was so powerful; hot clouds and the resulting tsunami killed about 36,000 people. Until before the date of December 26, 2004, this is a terdahsyat tsunami in the Indian Ocean region.
Explosion sound was heard up in Alice Springs, Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Africa, 4653 miles. Yield is estimated at 30,000 times the atomic bomb that was detonated on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
The eruption of Krakatoa caused global climate change. The world was dark for two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. The sun shines dim until next year. Scattering dust visible in the sky Norway to New York.
The explosion of Krakatoa is actually less than the eruption of Mount Toba and Tambora in Indonesia, Mount Tanpo in New Zealand and Mount Katmal in Alaska.
However, the erupting mountains far in the human population is still very small. Meanwhile, when Krakatoa erupted, the human population is dense enough, science and technology has evolved, the telegraph was invented, and submarine cable has been installed. Thus it can be said that while information technology is growing and growing rapidly.
Noted that the eruption of Krakatoa was the first major disaster in the world after the invention of the submarine telegraph. Progress, unfortunately has not been matched by progress in the field of geology. The geologist was not even able to give an explanation of the eruption.
3. Maninjau (VEI = 7)
Maninjau caldera formed by a volcanic eruption thought to have occurred about 52,000 years ago. Deposits from the eruption have been found in the radial distribution around Maninjau stretched up to 50 km to the east, 75 km south-east, and west to the coast. Has a volume of 220-250 km ³ and a length of 20 km and width of 8 km.
2. Mount Tambora (VEI = 7)
This volcanic activity reached its peak in April 1815 when it erupted in a scale of seven on the Volcanic explosivity index. To the eruption’s largest eruption since the eruption of Lake Taupo in the year 181.
The explosion was heard up to Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km). Volcanic ash falls in Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku. The explosion was caused by the death of no fewer than 71,000 people with 11000-12000 of whom were killed in direct result of the eruption.
In fact, some researchers estimate that up to 92,000 people were killed, but this figure is questionable because based on estimates that are too high. Moreover, the eruption is causing global climate change.
The next year (1816) is often referred to as the Year Without a Summer because of the drastic change of weather North America and Europe because of the dust produced from the eruption of Tambora this. Due to drastic climate change is a lot of crop failure and livestock deaths in the Northern Hemisphere which led to the worst famine in the 19th century.
During an archaeological excavation in 2004, a team of archaeologists found the remains buried by the eruption of culture in 1815 at a depth of 3 meters in pyroclastic deposits. Artifacts were found in the same position when the eruption occurred in 1815. Because of the similar characteristics of this, the findings are often referred to as the Pompeii of the east.
1. Toba Supervolcano (VEI = 8)
Volcanic eruption is the most powerful ever known on planet Earth. And nearly wipe out generations of mankind on planet Earth.
73,000 years ago the eruption of the Supervolcano in Indonesia nearly destroyed all of humanity. Only a few have survived. And after Tsunami Volcano In Indonesia became active again and threatening the human race.
This eruption can not be compared with anything that has been experienced on earth since the time when humans could walk upright. Compared with the supervolcano Toba, even Krakatoa caused ten thousand deaths in 1883 is just a little burp.
Though krakatau has explosive power equivalent to 150 megatons of TNT. For comparison: Hiroshima Bomb explosions have only 0.015 megatons of explosive power, and then the destruction of orally 10,000 times weaker than Krakatoa.
As is known by scientists, toba nearly destroyed mankind 73.00 years ago. At that Neanderthal man inhabited the earth along with homo sapiens in Europe, as well as homo erectus and homo floresiensis in Asia.
It was very cold in Europe, the last ice age is going well where deer, wild horses and deer hunted giant. In addition to herbivorous diet, hairy mammoths and rhinos too often the human diet.
Toba, with a diameter of 90 kilometers on the island now known by the name of Sumatra, erupted with very powerful. Along with the huge tsunami waves, there are 2800 cubic kilometers of ash issued, which spread throughout the earth’s atmosphere. Which may have reduced the human population to only about 5000 to 10,000 men only.
Actual human beings today are from a few thousand human survivors of the super volcano Toba eruption 73,000 years ago. Therefore, The volcano in Indonesia responsible for the almost extinction of mankind.
And from 60 to 70 volcanoes in the area can ditemuai (Indonesia) now, some of which became active again in a few months or a few weeks after the earthquake on the seabed in December 2004.
Although Toba is still far away and safe sleeping under a large sea that bears the same name in North Sumatra, many people are afraid if one day an active volcano in the Gutter which is 300 miles south of the Toba eruption, could awaken a sleeping giant.
Prof volcanologist. Ray Cas said ‘That’s possible, but if Toba erupted and ready for the above situation is not the only indication the incident.
The experts think that maybe someday another large eruption will occur but it will probably happen about 10,000 or even 100,000 years longer. But no matter what all things can not be predicted.