Surabaya Indonesia is the capital city of East Java Province, Indonesia. Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta. Metropolis with a population that reached 3 million, Surabaya is the center of business, commerce, industry, and education in eastern Indonesia. Surabaya is known as City of Heroes because of its history which is taken into account in the struggle for Indonesian independence from the colonizers.
Although Java is a majority interest (83.68%), but Surabaya is also home to various ethnic groups in Indonesia, including the Madurese (7.5%), Chinese (7.25%), Arabic (2.04%), and the rest are other ethnic groups or foreigners.
Said Surabaya supposedly comes from the mythical story of the battle between sura (shark) and baya (crocodile).
Surabaya was once the kingdom of Majapahit gate, at the mouth of the Kali Mas. Even the day so specified as the city of Surabaya on May 31, 1293. The day was actually a day of victory forces Raden Wijaya Majapahit led to the forces of Kublai Khan’s Mongol empire messengers. Mongol troops coming from the sea is described as Boyo (crocodile / danger) and Raden Wijaya forces coming from the land described as SURO fish (shark / bold), so it literally means the courage to face the dangers that threaten. So the day of victory is celebrated as the anniversary of Surabaya.
In the 15th century, Islam began to spread rapidly in the Surabaya area. One member of the wali sanga, Sunan Ampel, establishing mosques and Islamic schools in the area Ampel. 1530, Surabaya became part of the Sultanate of Demak.
Following the collapse of Demak, Surabaya became the target of conquest of the Sultanate of Mataram: Panembahan Senopati invaded in 1598, was heavily damaged by Seda ing Panembahan Krapyak in 1610, attacked by Sultan Agung in 1614. Blocking the flow of the Brantas River by Sultan Agung Surabaya finally forced to surrender. In 1675, Trunojoyo of Madura took Surabaya, but eventually sacked in 1677 VOC.
The agreement between Pakubuwono VOC II and on 11 November 1743, handed over his command to the VOC Surabaya.
At the time of the Dutch East Indies, Surabaya residency status as the capital of Surabaya, whose territory also includes what is now the district of Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Jombang. In 1905, Surabaya got the status of municipalities (Gemeente). In 1926, designated as the provincial capital of Surabaya in East Java. Surabaya has since developed into a modern city’s second largest after the Netherlands East Indies Batavia.
Before 1900, the center of Surabaya only revolve around Red Bridge alone. Until the 1920s, the growth of new settlements such as the Darmo, Gubeng, Sawahan, and Ketabang. In 1917 built a modern port facilities in Surabaya.
Dated February 3, 1942, the Japanese dropped a bomb in Surabaya. In March 1942, Japan won Surabaya. Surabaya then subjected to Allied air raid on May 17, 1944.
After World War II ended, on October 25, 1945, 6000, British troops from India’s 49 Brigade, 23 Division led by Brigadier-General Walter Sothern Mallaby Aulbertin landed in Surabaya with main orders to disarm the Japanese, Indonesian soldiers and militia. They are also in charge of former prisoners of war and repatriate the Japanese troops. Japanese troops surrender all their weapons, but the militia and Indonesia over 20000 troops refused.
October 26, 1945, agreement was reached between Mr. Suryo, Governor of East Java with Brigadier Mallaby that Indonesian troops and militia do not have to surrender their weapons. Unfortunately, misunderstandings between the British forces in Surabaya with the British army headquarters in Jakarta led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison.
October 27, 1945, at 11:00 noon, British Air Force Dakota aircraft dropped leaflets from Jakarta to Surabaya in Indonesia and the soldiers ordered all militias to surrender weapons. The Indonesian army and militia leaders angry when reading this leaflet and think of Brigadier Mallaby did not keep the agreement dated October 26, 1945.
October 28, 1945, Indonesian troops and militia attacking British troops in Surabaya. To avoid defeat in Surabaya, Brigadier Mallaby requested that President Soekarno and the commander of British forces 23 Division, Major General Douglas Hawthorn Cyril to go to Surabaya and seeking peace.
October 29, 1945, President Soekarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and Information Minister Maj. Gen. Amir Syarifuddin Harahap with Hawthorn went to Surabaya to negotiate.
By day, October 30, 1945, reached agreement that was signed by President Soekarno and 23 Division Commander Major General Hawthorn. Contents of the agreement is held stop shooting and British troops will pull out of Surabaya as soon as possible. Major General Hawthorn and the three leaders left Surabaya Indonesia and back to Jakarta.
On the afternoon of October 30, 1945, Brigadier General Mallaby around to the various headings of British forces in Surabaya to inform about the agreement. When approaching the post of British forces in Internatio building, near the red bridge, the car was surrounded by a militia Brigadier General Mallaby who previously had surrounded the building Internatio.
Thinking that would be attacked by militia commanders, troops led by British company D Major K. Venu Gopal opened fire on his militia to disband. The militia thought they were being attacked / shot at British troops from the Internatio building and returned fire. A British officer, Captain R.C. Smith threw a grenade in the direction Indonesian militias, but missed and instead falls right in the car Brigadier Mallaby.
The grenade exploded and burned cars. As a result, Brigadier Mallaby and his driver were killed. The initial report given to British troops in Surabaya headquarters of British forces in Jakarta said Brigadier General Mallaby was shot dead by Indonesian militia.
Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was furious to hear the death of Brigadier Mallaby and deploy 24 000 more troops for control of Surabaya. Past 9 November 1945, the British ultimatum to deploy all the weapons Indonesian soldiers and militia immediately handed over to the British army, but the ultimatum was ignored. 10 November 1945, the British began to bomb Surabaya and a fierce battle took place continuously for 10 days. Two planes were shot down British troops RI and one of the passengers Brigadier General Robert Guy Loder-Symonds mortally wounded and died the next day. 20 November 1945, Britain seized Surabaya with untold thousands of soldiers were killed. Indonesia over 20000 soldiers, militia and Surabaya residents were killed. The entire city of Surabaya was devastated.
This battle is one of the bloodiest battles experienced by British forces in the decade of the 1940s. The seriousness of this battle shows Indonesia to maintain independence and repel invaders. Because the heat of battle and the amount of casualties, after this battle, the number of British troops in Indonesia began to be gradually reduced and replaced by Dutch troops. Battle of 10 November 1945 up to today is remembered and celebrated as Heroes’ Day.
GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY SURABAYA
Surabaya is located on the northern coast of East Java province. Territory adjacent to the Madura Strait in the North and East, South Sidoarjo, Gresik regency in the West as well. Surabaya is located in the lowlands, the height between 3-6 m above sea level except in the southern part there are two sloping hill that is in the tongue and Gayungan height between 25-50 m above sea level and in the west a little bumpy. There Surabaya Kali Mas estuary, which is one of the two fractions Brantas.luas the city of Surabaya River is 374.36 km2.
The Javanese are the majority ethnic group in Surabaya. Compared with the Java community at large, The Javanese in Surabaya has a temper that a little louder and egalitarian. One reason is Surabaya away from the palace which is seen as a center of Javanese culture.
Surabaya is also home to various ethnic groups in Indonesia, including Madurese, Chinese, and Arabic.
As an educational center, Surabaya is also home to students from different regions from all over Indonesia, even among their own community also formed container. As a regional commercial center, many foreigners (expats) living in Surabaya, especially in West Surabaya.
Islam is the religion of the majority of Surabaya. Surabaya is one of the center spread of the earliest religion of Islam in Java. Ampel mosque was founded in the 15th century by Sunan Ampel, one of the pioneers Walisongo.
Embraced other religions are Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. In Surabaya also found adherents of Shia Islam in significant numbers. Although Islam is the majority of people in Surabaya on Religious harmony of mutual respect, respect each other and help each other to a large enough, the intention of running the Charity communities Surabaya in worship. Not only that many social foundations berazaskan Religion is also a lot, they work together in social activities of Bhakti. There is even a single container for Religious Harmony in Surabaya are often Exist in addressing the problem of human social order is not easily provoked by the parties are not responsible for what will destroy the unity of the Indonesian people in general and especially the people of East Java. Surabaya is home of several large churches Indonesia. And numerous sects or flow emerging church in the city of Surabaya.
Surabaya has typical Javanese dialect known as Boso Suroboyoan. This dialect is spoken in Surabaya and its surrounding area, and has influence in the eastern province of East Java. This dialect is known egalitarian, outspoken, and does not recognize various levels of language as a standard Java language in general. Surabaya community known to be quite fanatic and proud of its language. But by the advanced civilization and the many immigrants who come to Surabaya had mixed Suroboyo language, Java and Madura ngoko, Suroboyo native languages ??are extinct. Njegog Example: Turn, Ndherok: Stop, Gog: Paklek / Om, Maklik: Bulek / aunt.
As a metropolitan city, Surabaya became the center of economic activities in East Java and the surrounding area. Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Many large companies are headquartered in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing’s Group, Unilever, and PT PAL. Industrial areas including Surabaya in Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut (SEER) and Margomulyo.
Today there are dozens of big malls and dozens of large supermarkets. Famous modern shopping centers are: Tunjungan Plaza, Pakuwon Trade Center and the Supermall Pakuwon Beautiful (one building), Galaxy Mall, Golden City Mall, Junction lathe (BG Junction), Royal Plaza, City of Tomorrow (Cito), Surabaya Town Square (Sutos ), Hi Tech Mall, Maspion Square, MEX Building, Market Mall Atum, ITC Surabaya Plaza Marina (formerly Sinar Fontana), and Plasa Surabaya Surabaya society better known as the Delta Plaza and the most recent date is the Empire Palace, which it is also the first wedding mall in Indonesia. While traditional shopping centers including the famous Pasar Turi, Atomic Market, and Darmo Trade Center (DTC), which formerly was Wonokromo Market.
Surabaya is known to have unique art:
* Ludruk, is a performing arts drama that tells the lives of everyday people.
* Dance Remo, is a welcome dance which is generally offered to special guests
* Chanting, is a sung poem, and contains elements of humor
In addition to the above typical arts, culture arek call (call typical Surabaya) is translated as Cak for men and for women Ning. In an effort to preserve the culture, every election is held once a year Cak & Ning Surabaya. Cak & Ning Surabaya and the finalists chosen a tourism ambassador and youth icon of Surabaya.
The festival is held once every year Durasim Cak (FCD), which is a festival of art to preserve the culture of Surabaya and East Java in general. Cak Durasim Festival is usually held at the House of Cak Durasim, Surabaya. There was also the Surabaya Art Festival (FSS), which raised all kinds of art forms such as theater, dance, music, literature seminars, exhibitions of paintings. the performers are usually apart of the art in surabaya surabaya also come from outside. also enlivened the screening step on the screen, show T-shirts and so forth. held annually in June held at the Youth Center
Surabaya is the transportation hub of land transportation in the eastern part of Java Island, the confluence of a number of highway that connects Surabaya with other cities. Freeway segment including Surabaya-Gresik, Surabaya-Waru-Gempol, and Waru-Juanda Airport. When this has been examined highway construction plans in the Central Cross-town and East Cross to reduce congestion. Highway will be built is the Surabaya-Mojokerto-Kertosono.
To connect Surabaya with Madura island, there is a Suramadu Bridge the longest bridge in Indonesia. Relationship intercity bus terminal is served by two buses, namely Bus Terminal Purabaya (Bungurasih) and Pond Bus Terminal (Osowilangun).
Bus Terminal Purabaya or more popularly known as Terminal Bungurasih, is the busiest bus terminal in Indonesia (with passenger numbers up to 120,000 per day), and the largest bus terminal in Southeast Asia. The terminal is located outside the borders of the District Waru Surabaya, Sidoarjo. This terminal serves routes at close range, medium-, and far (AKAP). Pond Bus Terminal (Osowilangun) serves close range and medium-sized freight traffic north to Semarang.
Surabaya city is connected with a number of cities in Java via the railway. Surabaya has four major railway stations: Wonokromo, Gubeng, Surabaya City, Surabaya Pasar Turi. Railway line including the Surabaya-Malang majoring-Blitar (Training), Surabaya-Kertosono-Blitar (Doho), Surabaya-Bojonegoro-Cepu (KRD), Surabaya Gubeng-Jember-Banyuwangi (East Pearl}, Jember, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Navan (Logawa}, Banyuwangi-Yogyakarta (Sritanjung), Surabaya Gubeng-Kiaracondong (Pasundan), Surabaya-Jakarta-Lempuyangan (GBMS), Surabaya, Semarang Poncol-JAKK (Kertajaya} and rail-rail diesel SAKK Porong (commuting). Name the name of a railway train in economy class (subject Alit)
Transportation in the city is served by taxis, city buses (AC / Non AC), public transportation (better known as Bemo), angguna (such as a taxi but no air conditioning, and has a distinctive shape), and tricycles (although now more restricted in use). Surabaya has a number of terminals in the city, among others Joyoboyo, Bratang, and Red Bridge. For regional-scale transport, there is a connecting train commuting Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Porong, Surabaya-Gresik, Lamongan, and now also developed major commuter train-Surabaya-Mojokerto Jombang.